Quality Assurance Practices in Canada: An Overview

toc / tdm 1. Introduction

In Canada, postsecondary education is the responsibility of provincial and territorial governments, and each jurisdiction has its own quality-assurance mechanisms. There is no national system of education. It is important to note that, in Canada, postsecondary education encompasses all types of formal instructional programs beyond secondary school, including academic, vocational, technical, and continuing professional education, whether offered by universities, colleges, or institutes. More information on postsecondary education is provided in Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada: An Overview.

This report describes the quality-assurance mechanisms used in each of Canada's ten provinces and three territories to ensure high-quality postsecondary education. The introduction provides an overview of the approaches taken, and is followed by chapters detailing the practices in each jurisdiction.

For the purposes of this report, the term "quality assurance" refers to the achievement of educational-program standards set by institutions, professional organizations, government, and/or standard-setting bodies established by government. In Canada, the term “accreditation” refers most often to the evaluation of specific university and college programs by professional bodies and, as such, is an important component of quality assurance.

All public and private "recognized" and "authorized" postsecondary institutions in Canada have been given the authority to grant academic credentials by their provincial or territorial governments, through charters or legislation that ensures or enables mechanisms for institutional and program quality. "Registered" or "licensed" institutions are monitored by government for institutional and program quality and consumer protection, depending on the jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions, there are processes for program approval or voluntary accreditation for private colleges. Non-registered and non-licensed institutions are private commercial enterprises whose programs are not monitored.

Given the broad use of some institutional titles, such as college and institute, and of some credentials, such as diplomas and certificates, it is important to understand the status of a specific institution (whether it is recognized/authorized, registered/licensed, or unregulated), as well as the mechanisms that are in place to ensure program quality. The status of specific institutions can be obtained by consulting the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials Web site.

The key components of quality assurance are outlined below.

toc / tdm 2. Legislation

In each of Canada's ten provinces and three territories, legislation is used to some degree by governments to establish, govern, recognize, or ensure the quality of postsecondary educational programming.

For public universities in most provinces, provincial legislation has established the authority of universities to grant degrees and other credentials, to call themselves “universities,” and to govern themselves through a board of governors and, most often, a senate. Each public university is autonomous in academic matters, including the determination of its own quality-assurance policies and procedures. Universities have the power to set academic, admission, and graduation policies and standards, appoint staff, and undertake academic planning. In some provinces, councils or other government-appointed bodies have been established with responsibility for planning and coordinating the development of the postsecondary system, in consultation with the institutions. These bodies, or the minister responsible for postsecondary education, may be responsible for approving new and significantly revised programs.

Private universities and out-of-province institutions are permitted to offer degrees only after their applications have undergone a quality-assessment process undertaken by provincial government authorities, and approved degrees may continue to be monitored. The review may assess both academic rigour and institutional soundness.

The degree of autonomy and responsibility of public colleges and institutes varies considerably across the country. In some jurisdictions, colleges and institutes are largely autonomous, with the government determining which credentials they can grant and/or approving their mandates, while the college boards of governors manage their programs and quality assurance. In others, ministers or appointed external councils have responsibility for establishing guidelines for program evaluation and appointing review teams or for approving all programs and authorizing their delivery.

Private colleges and institutes, which operate under a wide variety of names, are registered or licensed in most jurisdictions. Depending on the jurisdiction, this may imply consumer protection for students, monitoring of the provision of programs, limits on advertising claims, or the imposition of standards for curriculum and instructor qualifications. Colleges may also offer non-registered programs. In some jurisdictions, private colleges that offer language training programs, programs of less than 40 hours duration, programs that cost less than $1,000, or professional development and single-skill training programs, are not registered or monitored.

Apprenticeship training combines workplace training and class instruction. Provincial and territorial legislation governing apprenticeship training may assign the responsibility for quality assurance to a government department, an industry-led agency, and/or trade-specific advisory committees. These groups may establish standards and content for the in-class portion provided by colleges, monitor training quality, and oversee other aspects of quality assurance. Program standards are set using national or provincial occupation standards. The Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training and certification; it also provides greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Trades Qualification bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition throughout Canada; for employers, it is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

toc / tdm 3. Affiliation and Federation

An affiliation usually involves a specialized institution, college, or private university and a public university; the affiliation may imply the granting of joint degrees, degree equivalency, or the awarding of the degree through the public university. Federated institutions are administratively and financially autonomous, but academically integrated with degrees granted by universities. In all these cases, quality assurance is the responsibility of the institutions involved in the relationship.

toc / tdm 4. Credit Transfer and Articulation

Credit transfer involves an equivalency comparison of individual courses at one institution to courses offered at another institution. The details and flexibility of the process vary by institution. Articulation involves formal agreements between institutions on program delivery and the awarding of credits in specific programs. For example, a college may deliver the first two years of an articulated degree program and a university delivers the final two years and awards the credential, or a university and a college may develop a joint program that results in both a degree and a diploma.

In provinces where extensive credit-transfer and articulation systems exist, comprehensive transfer guides are made publicly available. There are tens of thousands of credit-transfer agreements between private and public universities, colleges, and institutes, and they are subject to the program-review processes at each institution.

toc / tdm 5. External and Internal Review

External review procedures for universities may involve program-accreditation or -recognition visits conducted by external committees of quality assessors, usually composed of academic peers from outside institutions or representatives from relevant professions. The findings of external reviews are usually reported to an accrediting body, government institution, or professional organization. For colleges and institutes, the external review, where implemented, is usually conducted by a government-appointed council.

Most institutions also use self-assessment methods to conduct internal reviews of the quality of specific programs and of their institutions as a whole. Public colleges and institutes may also involve program advisory committees made up of industry representatives. Programs may be reviewed on a regular cycle, and some institutions have implemented continuous improvement processes. The results of such internal reviews are often provided to government and may be considered in determining eligibility for direct (for example, grants) or indirect (for example, government-based student-loan revenues) public funding.

toc / tdm 6. Professional Accreditation

At the provincial and national levels, Canadian professional-regulatory bodies (for example, in the fields of nursing, architecture, and engineering) participate in the establishment and review of postsecondary curriculum standards and consult on other issues governing student preparations for entry into professions. Accreditation reviews are conducted through analysis of reports and on-site visits.

toc / tdm 7. Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance

There are a number of organizations in Canada that promote quality and the use of high academic standards in postsecondary programs.

The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) does not have an accreditation role, but membership in AUCC, held in conjunction with a provincial charter, may be seen as indicating that a university offers quality education. A university or degree-granting college is admitted to AUCC if it meets several requirements related to governance, mission statements, programs, policies, and other factors. External peer review is used to determine an institution's eligibility for membership in AUCC. In addition, AUCC member institutions have endorsed a statement of principles on institutional quality assurance in Canadian higher education. These principles include having policies and processes in place that apply to the full range of current and planned programs. The quality-assessment process must involve internal and external disciplinary experts, as well as students, faculty, and administrative personnel. Alumni and community representatives may also be involved. The process guidelines and results are to be made available to the public.

The Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is another important national organization that supports the maintenance of high-quality programming in colleges. The ACCC requires member institutions to deliver postsecondary programs of the academic standard for diploma and certificate qualifications as set out by the appropriate jurisdictional authorities, to operate as an integral part of a provincial or territorial government's educational activities, and to be funded primarily through that government.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in the accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm 8. Issues in Quality Assurance

Quality assurance in postsecondary education is becoming increasingly important in the new educational environment that encompasses a growing international trade in educational services, the expansion of the number and types of institutions offering degrees and other programs in Canada, the increased mobility of students and graduates, and the need for students, parents, governments, educational institutions, and international partners to better understand education in Canada. International agreements, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education, the UNESCO/Council of Europe Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education in the European Region (known as the Lisbon Recognition Convention), and those of the University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific (UMAP) organization, specifically address accreditation, recognition, and the need for improvements in student mobility; they are also creating pressures and sharpening the focus on the importance of quality-assurance procedures.

Canadian jurisdictions realized that it was increasingly important to have a set of consistent and coherent standards at a pan-Canadian level to facilitate mobility and transferability domestically, and to increase understanding of Canada's postsecondary-education institutions and credentials internationally. The Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) issued the Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework, which describes degree categories and sets out degree-level standards, in addition to statements of procedures and standards for assessing new degree programs and new degree-granting institutions. This framework provides a context for identifying how degree credentials compare in level and standard among jurisdictions, with a view to facilitating continuous improvement, the education and training of an internationally competitive workforce, and international recognition of the quality of Canadian credentials.

toc / tdm 9. Further Information

Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC)
95 St. Clair Avenue West, Suite 1106
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M4V 1N6     
Tel: (416) 962-9725
Fax: (416) 962-2800
http://www.cicic.ca/
 
Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC)
P.O. Box 370
1 – 247 Barr Street
Renfrew, Ontario
Canada K7V 1J6
Tel: (613) 432-9491
Fax: (613) 432-6840
http://www.aaac.ca
 
Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC)
1223 Michael Street North, Suite 200
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1J 7T2
Tel: (613) 746-2222
Fax: (613) 746-6721
http://www.accc.ca/
 
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC)
350 Albert Street, Suite 600
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1R 1B1
Tel: (613) 563-1236
Fax: (613) 563-9745
http://www.aucc.ca
 
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC)
95 St. Clair Avenue West, Suite 1106
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M4V 1N6
Tel: (416) 962-8100
Fax: (416) 962-2800
http://www.cmec.ca
 

Updated: January 2009



ToC / TdM PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL PROFILES


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Alberta

The postsecondary education system in Alberta is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. Publicly funded postsecondary institutions within the Campus Alberta system are divided into six sectors under the Roles and Mandates Policy Framework for Alberta's Publicly Funded Advanced Education System: 

Quality assurance mechanisms in Alberta's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include one or more of the following:

toc / tdmLegislation

The Post-Secondary Learning Act sets out the government authority for public postsecondary education in Alberta. The Act establishes public universities, approving their mandates and restricting the use of the term "university." The Act also provides universities with the power to grant degrees for programs approved by the Minister. The authority of each university to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors appointed by the Minister responsible for advanced education, a senate, and a general faculties council is outlined in the Act. A university's general faculties council and its associated individual faculty councils are, subject to the authority of the board of governors, responsible for the academic affairs of the institution including the determination of all courses of study, the establishment of admission standards and policies, affiliations with other institutions, and academic planning. Four of Alberta's universities are in the Comprehensive Academic Research Institutions (CARI) sector.

The Post-Secondary Learning Act establishes public colleges and technical institutes, giving each college and technical institute the authority to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors in accordance with a ministerially-approved institutional mandate. With the exception of The Banff Centre, the governing boards are appointed by the Minister responsible for advanced education. The Act also requires that each public college and technical institute have an academic council. These councils make reports and recommendations to their boards on a variety of issues including academic policy on standards, programs, courses, and selection, admission and graduation of students. Colleges and technical institutes that meet certain regulation and policy criteria may establish an alternate academic council similar to a general faculties council at a university. This alternate academic council would replace the institution's current academic council and allow for greater engagement from faculty in academic matters. Public colleges and technical institutes include institutions from five sectors of the Roles and Mandates Policy Framework: Baccalaureate and Applied Studies Institutions (BASI), Polytechnical Institutions (PI), Comprehensive Community Institutions (CCI), and Specialized Arts and Culture Institutions (SACI).

Alberta has five publicly funded private institutions in the Independent Academic Institutions (IAI) sector. They are authorized by the government to offer select degree programs and are not-for-profit, private, faith-based university colleges. Regardless of the institution's religious denominational affiliations, students of all faiths are welcome.

Supporting the six-sector publicly funded postsecondary system, Alberta also has one private for-profit institution that has Ministerial approval to offer undergraduate science and business degrees.

The delivery of vocational training programs by private providers in Alberta is governed by the Private Vocational Training Act and Regulation. An occupation, calling, trade or pursuit is defined as a vocation if it requires the application of specialized skills and knowledge and is capable of providing the practitioner with a livelihood. Supporting the six-sector publicly funded postsecondary system, the approximately 150 private trainers offer over 700 licensed programs. Examples of licensed programs include emergency medical services, computer programming, massage, multi-media, hairstyling, acupuncture and early childhood services. The Act and Regulation, along with a listing of the private trainers and licensed programs, may be viewed on the Private Vocational Training Branch website.

The Apprenticeship and Industry Training Act and Regulations provide the legislative authority for the apprenticeship and industry training system. The government, through the ministry responsible for advanced education, administers the system and arranges with training establishments to provide the in-school instructional component of apprenticeship training.

The Act requires that the government appoint an Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board. The board's primary responsibility is to establish the standards and requirements for training and certification in programs under the Act. The board also makes recommendations to the Minister responsible for advanced education about the needs of Alberta's labour market for skilled and trained workers, and the designation of trades and occupations.

Program approval or licensing processes

The Programs of Study Regulation under the Post-secondary Learning Act stipulates that all publicly funded postsecondary institutions must receive approval from the Minister responsible for advanced education to establish, suspend or terminate degree, diploma or certificate programs.

New program proposals as well as proposed changes to all degree programs are submitted to the Minister responsible for advanced education for approval. The program approval process is designed to promote system development and coordination. The ministry reviews program proposals in light of a number of key considerations including fit with the institutional mandate and strategic plan, fit with provincial planning frameworks, relationship of the proposed program to existing programs within the institution and across the province, student and economic demand, and the institution's resource capacity.

In the case of new degree program proposals, after a positive system coordination review, the degree program is referred to the Campus Alberta Quality Council (CAQC) for review to ensure that it is of high quality. Once the quality of the degree program has been assessed using standards and processes consistent with the Ministerial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada, the Council makes a recommendation to the Minister on whether or not to approve the degree program. The degree program approval process is outlined at http://www.caqc.gov.ab.ca.

All degree programs (except for degrees in divinity), including those from all institutions in the six sectors, resident for-profit institutions and non-resident institutions wishing to offer degrees in Alberta, are subject to the two-stage approval process noted above: system coordination review by the ministry and, if positive, quality review by the Campus Alberta Quality Council (CAQC). The Minister approves degree programs at private institutions in Alberta once the institution has been designated to offer degrees by the lieutenant governor in council on recommendation of the Minister. Approved degree programs are subject to monitoring by CAQC. Degrees in divinity are not subject to approval by the Minister, nor are they reviewed or monitored by CAQC.

For private vocational training, the ministry's licensing requirements include demonstration that there is labour market demand for graduates, the curriculum is considered by industry to be relevant, the admission requirements for students are appropriate, and instructor qualifications are viewed by industry as being suitable. Each licensee is required to post and maintain security to protect the tuition paid on behalf of students or by students enrolled in licensed vocational training programs. Licensees are also required to submit annual reports providing graduation and job placement information with respect to each student enrolled in licensed training.

Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system relies on a network of industry committees. These include local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated trades and occupational committees in the designated occupations.

  • Each trade has a provincial apprenticeship committee (PAC), which provides recommendations to the board on training requirements, certification requirements, and standards for trade. The PACs are also responsible for recognizing training as equivalent to training provided in an apprenticeship program in their trade.
  • Local apprenticeship committees (LACs) are established by the board where there is enough activity in an area of the province to warrant a committee. LAC responsibilities include making recommendations about apprenticeship and certification to the PAC for their trade.
  • Each occupation has an occupational committee which makes recommendations to the board on any matter concerning training and certification in their occupation.

Staff in the ministry responsible for advanced education arrange the formal in-school instruction for all apprenticeship programs and work with PACs to develop the content of formal instruction and to develop examinations. Training establishments, mostly Polytechnical Institutions and Comprehensive Community Institutions, teach to the training standards set by the PACs. The ministry also administers apprenticeship examinations and maintains records of the apprentice's contract and training progress.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

The Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer (ACAT) serves as a body through which stakeholders work cooperatively to ensure effective transferability of courses and programs for the benefit of students. The objective of the Council is the enhancement of educational opportunities for students. ACAT's framework for admissions and transfer agreements is contained in the Council's Principles, Policies, and Procedures which is published in the Alberta Transfer Guide. The Guide, which is the official inventory of transfer agreements duly negotiated and approved by postsecondary institutions in the province, is printed annually and is available in a searchable database at http://www.acat.gov.ab.ca. The Council monitors the effectiveness of admissions and transfer policies and practices throughout the advanced education system and makes recommendations to the ministry and institutions on revisions of policies, guidelines, and procedures.

Institutions negotiate with each other to establish the terms of specific credit transfer agreements in accordance with internal policies and practices. Essentially, by comparing program curriculum, they determine appropriate equivalencies. Thousands of course and program transfer agreements have been negotiated between postsecondary institutions in Alberta and are recorded in the Council's database. Through these agreements, students are able to begin study at one institution and receive credit at another. Institutions conduct periodic evaluation of these agreements to ensure that they remain current.

External and Internal Review

All institutions have internal new program proposal review procedures as well as processes to periodically review approved programs based on institutional policies and procedures, often using external reviewers. The Campus Alberta Quality Council also has a role in monitoring new approved degree programs.

Compliance reviews of licensed private vocational training programs are conducted by the Private Vocational Training branch of the ministry when non-compliance issues are identified. In addition, each institution is required to undergo an external review conducted by an accounting firm selected by the ministry.

The apprenticeship and industry training system in Alberta operates on a three-year business cycle that includes program evaluation of the in-school portion of apprenticeship training through performance indicators such as apprenticeship and graduate satisfaction surveys and graduate employment rates. Training institutions are required to teach to the training objectives defined by the provincial apprenticeship committee (PAC) in each respective trade.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the institutions offering the programs and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

Many degree-granting institutions in Alberta are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). Although the Association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, as a member of AUCC, the institutions have confirmed their commitment to the AUCC principles of institutional quality assurance in Canadian higher education.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

Many of Alberta's publicly funded institutions are members of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Most provincial legislation may be accessed through the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Enterprise and Advanced Education
Communications Branch
7th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-422-5400
Fax: 780-427-0821
Web site: http://www.advancededandtech.alberta.ca/
 
Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer
11th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-422-9021
Fax: 780-422-3688
E-mail: acat@gov.ab.ca
Web site: http://www.acat.gov.ab.ca/
Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training
10th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-427-8517
Web site: http://www.tradesecrets.gov.ab.ca/
 
Campus Alberta Quality Council
11th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-427-8921
Fax: 780-427-0423
Web site: http://www.caqc.gov.ab.ca/
 
Private Vocational Training Branch
Enterprise and Advanced Education
10th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-427-5609
Fax: 780-427-5920
Web site: http://aet.alberta.ca/post-secondary/institutions/private.aspx
 
Post-secondary Programs Branch
Enterprise and Advanced Education
11th Floor, Commerce Place
10155-102 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4L5 Canada
Tel.: 780-427-6796
Fax: 780-427-4185

Revision: 2011-04-13


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in British Columbia

The postsecondary education system in British Columbia is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in British Columbia's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • the Degree Quality Assessment Board (DQAB)
  • the Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA)
  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • provincial registration
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

The Education Quality Assurance (EQA) designation is British Columbia's brand for quality post-secondary education. EQA is a voluntary designation that recognizes public and private post-secondary institutions which have met quality assurance standards that are recognized by the Government of British Columbia.

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

The University Act governs British Columbia's public research-intensive universities (Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia, University of Northern British Columbia and University of Victoria) and most of its teaching-intensive universities (Capilano University, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, University of the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island University). The Act gives the universities the authority to grant degrees, diplomas, and certificates and to call themselves "universities."

The Royal Roads University Act establishes Royal Roads University (RRU). Some of its responsibilities are the same as for the other universities, but, instead of a senate, RRU has an academic council and several of the powers conferred on the senate in a university are assigned to the president.

The Thompson Rivers University Act establishes Thompson Rivers University (TRU). Under the Act, TRU also assumes responsibility for the provincial open and distance learning mandate of the British Columbia Open University and the Open College. As with RRU, many of TRU's responsibilities are the same as for the other universities, but TRU operates with a senate and a Planning Council for Open Learning.

The authority of each university to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors and a senate is outlined in the legislation. The academic governance of the university is vested in the senate, including the authority to establish student admission requirements; determine the conduct and results of all examinations; recommend revision of courses, instruction, and education in all faculties; and set terms of affiliation with other universities, colleges, or other institutions. The senate may also require any faculty to establish advisory committees consisting of students of the faculty and members of the community at large (RRU and TRU have exceptions as noted above).

Under the legislation, the Minister is prohibited from interfering in the exercise of a university's power to set academic policies and standards, establish standards for admission and graduation, and select and appoint staff. However, the Minister is required to approve all new degree programs.

All public universities must report annually to the Minister. The Minister can require a university to provide reports and other information that the Minister considers necessary to carry out the Minister's responsibilities in relation to universities. Since 2004-05, public postsecondary institutions prepare their own annual service plan reports to outline activities undertaken during the previous fiscal year toward achieving goals and to describe any developments that may have emerged, providing information for decision makers within the ministry and for the public.

Amendments to the College and Institute Act allow public colleges to offer baccalaureate degrees with an applied focus, and provincial institutes to offer baccalaureate degrees and master's degrees with an applied focus.

Affiliation

A few private theological postsecondary colleges are affiliated with a public university (University of British Columbia). In such instances, the granting of affiliation means that the private theological colleges meet the criteria for affiliation established by the senate of the university, but it does not imply any scrutiny or approval of the course offerings of the private theological colleges by the university senate.

Credit transfer and articulation

Transfer is the ability of a student to be able to move from one institution to another and have previous equivalent course work recognized for credit. Its primary purpose is to facilitate student mobility between institutions.

The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) was established in 1989 with a mandate to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements among British Columbia's public and private postsecondary institutions. Specifically, the council encourages institutions to develop policies that facilitate student mobility and transferability of postsecondary credit courses so that credit granted at one institution can be applied toward credentials at other institutions.

There are 34 public and private institutions which are members of the B.C. transfer system along with Yukon College and Athabasca University. They negotiate formal transfer agreements for courses and programs where there is high demand. All formal transfer agreements are recorded in the B.C. Transfer Guide. BCCAT has also developed a policy with the Alberta Council of Admissions and Transfers to include Alberta universities within the BC transfer system. To date, only Athabasca University has become a member.

All public and a large number of private institutions also negotiate transfer informally on a course-by-course, or student-by-student basis. These agreements are recorded by each institution and are not directly overseen by BCCAT.

As of March 31, 2010, there were 69,460 active agreements in the B.C. transfer system that provided students an average of 6.5 transfer options (agreements) per course.

BCCAT also produces Education Planner, which provides information on topics such as undergraduate program availability, application dates, tuition costs, admission requirements at 25 of British Columbia's public postsecondary institutions and five private institutions.

External and internal review

Universities must have internal program review procedures based on institutional policies and procedures including mandatory review of all new programs by a university senate. New degree program proposals, as well as substantively revised programs, must be submitted to the Minister for approval. Approval of new degree programs may come about in one of two ways. If the institution has not been granted exempt status, it must submit its new degree program proposals to the Degree Quality Assessment Board for review. After performing its review, the board determines whether the new degree meets established criteria and makes its recommendations to the Minister. If the institution has been granted exempt status by the Minister, all of its new degree program proposals go directly to the Minister for approval. The Minister may refer the proposal to the Degree Quality Assessment Board for review if the Minister has any concerns. Details about exempt status and the Degree Quality Assessment Board are available on the Internet.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of postsecondary programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the institutions and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in universities

All public universities in British Columbia (except Capilano University) are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). The association does not perform formal quality assurance functions; however, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions; the range of program offerings; the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions; the size of enrolment; institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research; and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Colleges and Institutes

Legislation

British Columbia's public colleges and three public institutes are established under the College and Institute Act. The act provides the colleges and institutes with authority to grant associate degrees, diplomas, and certificates; colleges to grant baccalaureate degrees with an applied focus, and institutes to grant baccalaureate and master's degrees with an applied focus. The Minister may also require an institution to establish a method for accrediting postsecondary courses.

All institutions have boards of governors, and all but one have an education council. These bodies have joint and independent powers. The board is responsible for managing and directing the affairs of the institution. The education council's independent powers include the power to set examination policies and to set curriculum content for courses leading to certificates, diplomas, and degrees. Powers that are exercised jointly by the board and the education council include curriculum evaluation.

Affiliation

A few of British Columbia's public and private colleges have affiliations with universities in a limited number of programs. Inquiries should be made directly to the institutions.

Credit transfer and articulation

Transfer is the ability of a student to be able to move from one institution to another and have previous equivalent course work recognized for credit. Its primary purpose is to facilitate student mobility between institutions.

The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) was established in 1989 with a mandate to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements among British Columbia's public and private postsecondary institutions. Specifically, the council encourages institutions to develop policies that facilitate student mobility and transferability of postsecondary credit courses so that credit granted at one institution can be applied toward credentials at other institutions.

There are 34 public and private institutions are members of the British Columbia. transfer system along with Yukon College and Athabasca University. They negotiate formal transfer agreements for courses and programs where there is high demand. All formal transfer agreements are recorded in the BC Transfer Guide. BCCAT has also developed a policy with the Alberta Council of Admissions and Transfers to include Alberta universities within the BC transfer system. To date, only Athabasca University in Alberta has become a member.

All public and a large number of private institutions also negotiate transfer informally on a course-by-course, or student-by-student basis. These agreements are recorded by each institution and are not directly overseen by BCCAT.

As of March 31, 2007, there were 95,795 active agreements in the B.C. transfer system that provided students an average of 6.2 transfer options (agreements) per course.

BCCAT also produces the Education Planner, which provides information on undergraduate program availability, application dates, tuition costs, admission requirements, lengths, and much more at 28 of British Columbia's postsecondary institutions.

External and internal review

As with public universities, the Minister must approve all new degree program proposals, including applied degrees, by public colleges and institutes. New degree program proposals are submitted to the Degree Quality Assessment Board for review if the institution does not have exempt status. The Degree Quality Assessment Board is responsible for reviewing the proposals and making recommendations to the Minister. Details about the Degree Quality Assessment Board are available on the Internet.

All colleges and institutes but one have internal education councils, comprising faculty, administrators, students, and support staff. The councils approve both degree and non-degree programs supported by provincial funding. Under the College and Institute Act, the Justice Institute of British Columbia is not required to have an educational council. The board of the Justice Institute of British Columbia has the powers and duties of an educational council.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of postsecondary programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the institutions and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

toc / tdm Private Degree-Granting Institutions

Legislation

Private and out-of-province public postsecondary institutions seeking the Minister's consent to offer new degree programs or use the word "university" may do so through the Degree Authorization Act (DAA). Under the DAA, private and out-of-province public institutions must obtain consent from the Minister if they wish to do any of the following:

  • grant or confer a degree in British Columbia
  • provide a program in British Columbia that leads to a degree that is conferred inside or outside British Columbia
  • advertise a program offered in British Columbia leading to a degree that is conferred inside or outside British Columbia
  • sell or offer for sale a diploma, certificate, or other document that implies the granting or conferring of a degree
  • use the word "university" to indicate that an educational program is available

Under the DAA, consent is granted if the Minister is satisfied that the applicant has undergone a quality assessment process and met the criteria established by the Minister, has provided adequate financial security to protect the interests of students, and has made arrangements to protect student access to transcripts.

External and internal review

The Degree Quality Assessment Board oversees the quality assessment process mandated by the DAA for authorization of degree programs and use of the word "university" from private and out-of-province public institutions. The board is composed of 11 voting members and three ex-officio members appointed by the Minister. The board is responsible for reviewing applications for new degree programs and for making recommendations to the Minister regarding consent to perform the activities sanctioned under the DAA. Furthermore, the board performs organizational reviews to ensure that private and out-of-province public institutions meet criteria for operating in British Columbia.

The board reviews institutional applications against criteria and standards established by the Minister. These criteria include requirements for internal program and institutional review processes.

Credit transfer and articulation

Currently, a few private postsecondary institutions in British Columbia offer academic courses and/or programs that are transferable to public universities, within the transfer principles and definitions established by BCCAT. As well, some private degree granting institutions are program members of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfers (BCCAT) and accept credits from other institutions that are part of the transfer guide. Information on credit transfer is the responsibility of BCCAT and is provided in the BC Transfer Guide.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of postsecondary programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the institutions and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

toc / tdm Private Career Training Institutions

Legislation

The Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA), an organization created under the Private Career Training Institutions Act, oversees the regulation of private career training institutions offering a wide range of career, vocational, trades and non-degree (e.g., diploma or certificate) programs.

All British Columbia private institutions offering career programs that require at least $1,000 in tuition, and are at least 40 hours in duration, must register with PCTIA.

Registration ensures consumer protection to students enrolled in career training programs. PCTIA also offers a voluntary accreditation process to registered private career training institutions. In order to secure accreditation from PCTIA, institutions undergo a more rigorous quality assurance process, including demonstrating they meet certain institutional and educational standards.

Students attending PCTIA accredited private career training institutions are eligible to apply for student financial assistance through StudentAid BC.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

The Industry Training Authority (ITA) was established in 2004 under the Industry Training Authority Act to manage, improve and expand the industry training and apprenticeship system in BC. The training system is industry-driven and designed to be responsive to labour market needs. It is governed by a nine-member board of directors, appointed by the Minister responsible. Directors act in a fiduciary rather than representative capacity, guided by the best interests of the industry training system.

External and internal review

The Industry Training Authority is responsible for leading and overseeing the industry training and apprenticeship system in BC. Key goals for the ITA include:

  • Individuals are recognized for their skills and knowledge and have opportunities to develop to their full potential;
  • Employers and industry have the skilled workers they need to be successful; and
  • The industry training system makes a vital contribution to BC's prosperity.

The Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program (Red Seal Program) was established more than 50 years ago to provide greater mobility across Canada for skilled workers. Today it represents a standard of excellence for industry. Through the program, tradespersons are able to obtain a Red Seal endorsement on their provincial/territorial certificates by successfully completing an interprovincial Red Seal examination. It acknowledges competence and ensures recognition of certification throughout Canada without further examination

Other organizations related to quality assurance in colleges, institutes, and apprenticeship

British Columbia's public colleges are members of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

The Education Quality Assurance (EQA) designation is British Columbia's brand for quality post-secondary education. EQA is a voluntary designation that recognizes public and private post-secondary institutions that have met quality assurance standards that are recognized by the Government of British Columbia.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Most provincial legislation can be accessed through the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development
Post-Secondary Education Division
PO Box 9880, Stn Prov Govt
Victoria, British Columbia
V8W 9T6 Canada
Tel.: 250-356-2498
Fax: 250-952-6110
Web site: http://www.gov.bc.ca/aved/


Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA)
300-5172 Kingsway
Burnaby, British Columbia
V5H 2E8  Canada
Telephone: (604) 660-4400, 1-800-661-7441
Fax: (604) 660-3312
E-mail: info@pctia.bc.ca
Web site: http://www.pctia.bc.ca

Revision: 2010-06-04


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Manitoba

The postsecondary education system in Manitoba is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into six categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in Manitoba's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include:

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

Manitoba's five degree-granting universities are established by individual statutes. The authority of each institution to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors or regents and a senate is outlined in these statutes, their regulations, and bylaws. Manitoba universities have the authority to determine all matters relating to programs and qualifications of employees and all other matters deemed to be in the interest of the institutions. The statutes establishing individual institutions do not contain explicit reference to mechanisms for or accountabilities pertaining to quality assurance of educational programming. Program quality responsibilities are implied through the powers and duties assigned to institutions' internal governing bodies.

The use of the term "university" is restricted by legislation to use by institutions so designated by legislation.

The Council on Postsecondary Education Act establishes the Council on Postsecondary Education and assigns it responsibility for planning and coordinating the development of the province's postsecondary system. The act prohibits the council from interfering with the basic right of a university or college to formulate academic policies or standards and standards of admission or graduation or their independence in the appointment of staff. However, the council is responsible for assessing the province's educational needs, approving new programs, determining priorities, and allocating funding. It consults extensively with Manitoba's postsecondary institutions and develops consistent and effective criteria for measuring university and college performance. The council also facilitates the implementation of appropriate credit transfer arrangements between universities and colleges.

The act provides the council with the authority to, among other things, review and evaluate postsecondary programs.

The Degree Granting Act, enacted in December, 2006, restricts who may grant degrees to those institutions already having degree-granting authority in their legislation, or to those listed in the Degree Granting Act itself. Government is able to allow by regulation an institution to offer degrees for a limited time to allow those institutions who are not covered under the Act to complete cohorts of students in degree programming. The regulation is intended to be transitional, and not a second method by which an institution can be authorized to grant degrees.

The Degree Granting Act also gives to government the ability to authorize the use of the term "university" in the name of an institution. This authority was previously given to the Board of Governors of the University of Manitoba under the University of Manitoba Act.

Affiliation

The Collège Universitaire de Saint-Boniface is established by statute and is affiliated with the University of Manitoba. Degrees are issued jointly.

Credit transfer and articulation

Manitoba does not have a systematic, province-wide process for conducting credit transfers to and from universities and colleges. The flexibility and details of credit transfer procedures vary by institution. Articulation agreements are listed in most institutions' calendars. All new programs must demonstrate how credit transfer will be utilized.

Joint articulation agreements are in place between all Manitoba universities and colleges. Through these agreements, specific academic programs are jointly negotiated, delivery is shared, and, in some cases, two years of a four-year program are delivered by each institution. The universities grant the degrees. The quality of these programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

External and internal review

All new university program proposals developed by universities must be reviewed by another institution that offers the same program. The proposals must then be submitted for approval to the Council on Postsecondary Education. The council reviews each program from need, organizational, and financial perspectives. Quality of programs is assured through peer review of proposed programs by other universities.

The council also must approve any significant changes to university programs.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in universities

Most public universities in Manitoba are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Although the association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions; the range of program offerings; the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions; the size of enrolment; institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research; and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

William and Catherine Booth College is an Approved Teaching Centre of the University of Manitoba, a member of the Winnipeg Theological Consortium at the University of Winnipeg, and a full member of the Association for Biblical Higher Education, formerly the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges.

toc / tdm Private Religious Colleges

Legislation

Manitoba has four private religious institutions, all with degree-granting authority. The Canadian Mennonite University is established under the Mennonite College Federation Act. Like other Manitoba universities, the Canadian Mennonite University is governed by a board of governors and a senate, the senate being responsible for the academic policies of the university. Providence College and Seminary is legislated by the Providence College and Theological Seminary Incorporation Act and is governed by a board of directors. Steinbach Bible College is legislated under letters patent to operate as a college and seminary and is listed under the Degree Granting Act as having the authority to grant degrees. William and Catherine Booth College is governed by a board of trustees. The college was given degree-granting powers by the legislature of the province of Manitoba in 1983.

External and internal review

The Department of Advanced Education and Literacy funds private religious college programs that are not theologically based. These colleges must submit annual reports to the Council on Postsecondary Education.

toc / tdm Public Colleges

Legislation

The Colleges Act establishes board governance for Manitoba's colleges. These institutions are responsible for "enhancing the economic and social well-being of the province through the provision of a broad range of educational opportunities." The colleges may provide university courses by way of agreement with universities and may participate in joint programs with respect to education and training and related services developed and delivered in conjunction with universities or other accredited/recognized postsecondary institutions.

The minister of advanced education and literacy may designate college mandates, establish guidelines for education and training including programs evaluation guidelines, appoint persons or committees to review and evaluate college programs, and appoint persons to inspect any matter related to the management and operation of a college. All ministerial authority related to the Colleges Act has been delegated to the Council on Post-Secondary Education.The Colleges Act establishes boards of governors as the governing bodies of the colleges. Among the boards' activities are

  • determining policies regarding programs of study
  • establishing student admission requirements
  • evaluating programs of study on a regular basis in accordance with department guidelines
  • conducting at least every five years a special organizational and operational review in accordance with department guidelines

On the recommendation of the minister, the government may appoint an administrator of a college if the board of governors takes up a practice or tolerates a situation incompatible with the mandate of the college or the act, or if, in the opinion of the minister, it is otherwise in the public interest to do so. This power has never been used.

The colleges are required to submit to the department annual reports that must include audited financial statements, annual academic reports, and any other information that the minister requests. The minister must in turn table the report in the provincial legislature.

The Colleges Act also establishes college program advisory committees composed primarily of external industry representatives. These committees participate in the development of new programs and the review of existing programs of study.

The Council on Postsecondary Education Act establishes the Council on Postsecondary Education and gives it the responsibility of planning and coordinating the development of the province's postsecondary system. The act prohibits the council from interfering with the basic right of a university or college to formulate academic policies or standards, standards of admission or graduation, or their independence in the appointment of staff. However, the council is responsible for assessing the province's educational needs, approving all new programs, determining priorities, and allocating funding. The council consults extensively with Manitoba's postsecondary institutions and develops consistent and effective criteria for measuring university and college performance. It also facilitates the implementation of appropriate credit transfer arrangements between universities and colleges. The act also provides the council with the authority to review and evaluate postsecondary programs.

Affiliation

Manitoba's colleges have no formal affiliations with universities or other colleges.

Credit transfer

Credit transfers between Manitoba's colleges and other Canadian community colleges and universities are considered by program and administrative staff on a course-by-course basis that includes a review of course content, student evaluation methods, and teacher qualifications.

External and internal review

The Council on Postsecondary Education must approve all new college program proposals. The council reviews each program from quality, organizational, and financial perspectives. Quality of programs is assured through review of proposed programs by industry groups in the program area.

The Council must also approve significant changes to college programs.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in colleges and apprenticeship

Membership in the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is not mandatory for Manitoba's colleges. ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship training in Manitoba combines on-the-job workplace training and technical instruction. The Apprenticeship and Certification Act establishes the Apprenticeship and Certification Board and the Minister of Entrepreneurship, Training, and Trade as the co-authorities for training and certification in trades designated for apprenticeship training in Manitoba. Under the Act, the Board is appointed by and accountable to the minister. The Board develops objectives, standards, and requirements for apprenticeship and certification in designated trades and- with the approval of the Minister-makes regulations respecting trades and apprenticeship. . The Board appoints trade-specific Provincial Trade Advisory Committees (PTACs) to provide advice on regulation content and training standards in each designated trade.

The Apprenticeship Branch, a branch of Manitoba Entrepreneurship, Training and Trade, is responsible for delivering certification examinations and for issuing Certificates of Qualifications. A Certificate of Qualification is recognized by employers as being a valuable work credential. Nine of Manitoba's 50 designated (regulated) trades have been specified for compulsory certification, meaning that only persons who hold a Certificate of Qualification and registered apprentices may work in the trade.

External and internal review

The national occupational analysis (NOA) is a document produced by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. It is used to set the national standards for a trade, to create basic provincial program standards for a trade, to create parameters outlining the tasks of a trade for regulatory purposes, and to develop item banks for interprovincial certification examinations.

Manitoba is a member jurisdiction of the Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship's Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program. The Manitoba Apprenticeship Branch participates in the development of examination and standards products used by all jurisdictions in the pan-Canadian program. The Branch also facilitates the development of occupational analyses for trades that are not inter-provincially recognized.

The program standards (technical training) for each trade are developed by a provincial trade advisory committee (PTAC), comprised of representatives from industry, or by an industry working group working for or with the PTAC. College instructors may provide input into the development of program standards at the request of the PTAC. Apprenticeship Branch staff facilitate the curriculum development process. The Apprenticeship and Trades Qualifications Board approves curriculum content and certification standards for each trade, based on PTAC recommendations.

Technical training is delivered primarily by Manitoba's colleges. The Apprenticeship Branch, which is responsible for ensuring the quality of course content and instruction on industry's behalf, monitors the quality of training delivery. Each training provider also plays a role in ensuring the quality of its services.

A review of program content takes place approximately every three to five years. Student surveys are used when it is deemed appropriate. Overall apprentice success on the final certification examination is reviewed on an ongoing basis. Pan-Canadian reviews of examination results are conducted on an as-needed basis.

The Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of pan-Canadian trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) in 1958 to standardize trade skill requirements and to provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Qualification bearing the Red Seal endorsement indicates that a journeyperson has met nationally recognized training and certification standards in a particular trade and meets other jurisdictions' standards without requiring further testing or examination.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in colleges and apprenticeship

Membership in the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is not mandatory for Manitoba's colleges. ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Private Vocational Institutions

Legislation

The Private Vocational Institutions Act sets out requirements for the operation of registered private vocational institutions in Manitoba. The purpose of the act is to register the province's private-for profit and private-for-non-profit career colleges, provide limited consumer protection to students enrolled in registered programs offered by these institutions, and ensure that institutions provide the skills and knowledge required for entry-level employment in the vocation for which instruction or training is offered. A private vocational institution may operate in the province only if it is registered with the Department of Advanced Education and Literacy and if the Director of Private Vocational Institutions (hereafter: ?the director") is satisfied that the school can reasonably be expected to be financially responsible in its operations, will provide appropriate vocational training to students, and meets the requirements of the Act and regulations. The department may inspect any vocational institution at any time to observe methods of instruction and inspect materials used in the programs of study delivered by the institution and may cancel certificates of registration if the director is not satisfied that the institution is sufficiently providing said skills and knowledge in the vocation or if the school breaches the terms of its registration.

Private vocational institutions may call themselves "colleges," as there is no restriction on the use of the term.

These institutions can grant diplomas or certificates. In the Private Vocational Institutions Regulation (the regulations made under the Private Vocational Institutions Act), the director may prescribe the amount and type of financial security schools must provide, the schools' contributions to the Training Completion Fund, the manner in which tuition refunds must be calculated, and the requirements of enrollment contracts. It also prescribes the registration requirements for private vocational institutions, the various fees payable by schools and by students to schools, renewal and cancellation requirements of private vocational institutions registration, and forms that private vocational institutions may use. There are also requirements for employer or industry attestations during the program registration process, applicant references, and declarations of instructor qualifications.

Students who attend training programs that are registered by the director may be eligible to apply for student financial assistance provided that the programs are also designated for the purposes of the Canada and Manitoba student loan program. Institutions may deliver non-registered courses and programs, but students in these programs are not eligible to apply for student aid and are not protected by the Training Completion Fund, an insurance fund that is maintained by the director and funded by student contributions collected by the institutions.

External and internal review

All applications for private vocational institution registration must be reviewed and approved by the director housed in the Department of Advanced Education and Literacy. The director may request that a program submission be reviewed by an Industry Relations Committee composed of representatives from the local industry and other industry and education system stakeholders who will examine entrance requirements, the job market, employer attestations, and projected employment data, as well as instructional materials, facilities, equipment, and data on capacity to deliver training, prior to registering new programs.

Department surveys may also be conducted with persons who have attended courses at any time during the year. Student satisfaction is an element of these surveys.

Information on private vocational institutions' internal review processes may be available from individual schools.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Most provincial legislation can be accessed through the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Citizens' Inquiry Office
Provincial Government Information Office
Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada
Tel.: (204) 945-3744
Fax: (204) 945-4261
E-mail: mgi@gov.mb.ca
Web site: http://www.gov.mb.ca/help-answerdesk.html
 
Manitoba Apprenticeship
1010 - 401 York Avenue
Winnipeg MB R3C 0P8
tel. (204) 945-3337
Email: apprenticeship@gov.mb.ca
Web site: http://www.gov.mb.ca/tce/apprent/index.html
 
Council on Postsecondary Education
Room 410, 330 Portage Avenue
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 0C4 Canada
Tel.: (204) 945-1833
Fax: (204) 945-1841
Web site: http://www.copse.mb.ca

List of recognized degree-granting and non-degree-granting postsecondary institutions in Manitoba

Revision: 2010-05-31


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in New Brunswick

The postsecondary education system in New Brunswick is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in New Brunswick's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • provincial registration
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance
  • Working Group on University Accountability

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

New Brunswick has four public universities and three private universities established by individual statute. The Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Act establishes the Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC), which has responsibility for all public universities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The statute provides the commission with the responsibility of (a) reviewing all new program and proposed program modification proposals and (b) monitoring the institutions' quality assurance mechanisms. The commission is directly accountable to the Council of Atlantic Premiers.

Besides these institutions, the Degree Granting Act establishes the New Brunswick government as the sole authority in the designation of degree-granting institutions in the province. The Act also provides the Minister of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour with the authority to conduct periodic institutional and program reviews to determine compliance with the act and regulations. The MPHEC does the institutional and program reviews within the Degree Granting Act process.

Affiliation

New Brunswick's public universities have no formal affiliations with other institutions. Private universities have affiliations with organizations such as the Acadia Divinity College, the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches, and the Wesleyan Church.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Credit transfers between New Brunswick's public universities and other universities are considered by program and administrative staff on a course-by-course basis that includes a review of course content, student evaluation methods, and instructor qualifications.

In some programs there are formal and informal agreements between New Brunswick universities and colleges that certain courses will be recognized. Credit transfers are also conducted on a case-by-case basis depending on the educational backgrounds of individual students from other institutions.

Some articulation agreements are in place between New Brunswick universities and community colleges. Through these agreements, specific academic programs are jointly developed and delivery is shared. Students undertaking these articulated programs are provided with a previously established and coordinated program of study at both the universities and community colleges where they can earn both a diploma and a degree. The quality of these joint programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

External and Internal Review

The quality of New Brunswick's university programs is addressed in three additional ways. First, programs are evaluated by the universities' own processes of self-study and review conducted in accordance with internal policies and procedures. Second, the MPHEC reviews all new program proposals and all significant changes to existing programs. The commission focuses on continuous quality improvement of programs and teaching. The overall objective of program reviews is to ascertain the suitability of the program given its objectives, structure, institutional appropriateness, resources, stated student outcomes, and their relevance. Detailed program proposal guidelines are provided to institutions.

The third quality assurance activity is the MPHEC's monitoring of quality assessment procedures used by universities. This is especially important given that the cornerstone of quality assurance is self-assessment by the institutions. The specific objective of the MPHEC monitoring function is to ascertain that the procedures used by institutions to assess the quality of existing programs are performing adequately. The process is formative; institutional policies and practices are reviewed with a view to providing assistance and advice to institutions.

The process pays particular attention to each university's mission and values. MPHEC's quality assurance procedures start with internal reviews by the universities. For details on these procedures, contact the individual institutions.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may establish criteria for curriculum, provide some staff, and conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

All public universities in New Brunswick are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). Although the association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary missions of institutions; the range of program offerings; the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions; the size of enrolment; institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research; and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Community Colleges

Legislation

The New Brunswick Community Colleges Act govern New Brunswick's community colleges, while the Adult Education and Training Act governs other college-level education, including the New Brunswick College of Craft & Design (NBCCD). The Acts assign responsibility to the minister of Post-Secondary Education, Training, and Labour. The minister's responsibilities include setting policy for non-university postsecondary programs, and funding and general oversight of the College Corporations and the NBCCD.

Affiliation

NBCC, CCNB, and NBCCD do not have any formal affiliations with universities or other colleges.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

In July 2000, the colleges of the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) signed a memorandum of understanding to "maximize the recognition and transfer of learning acquired through formal education, workplace training, and work and life experience." In accordance with this memorandum, member colleges have agreed to transfer credits for all courses to approved programs delivered by other members.

In some programs there are formal and informal agreements between New Brunswick colleges and universities that certain courses will be recognized for credit transfer. Credit transfers are also conducted on a course-by-course basis depending on the educational backgrounds of individual students from other institutions.

Articulation agreements are in place between some colleges and universities. Through these agreements, specific academic programs are jointly developed, delivery is shared, and the universities generally grant applied degrees. The quality of these joint programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

In September of 2009, colleges and universities in Atlantic Canada have signed a MOU encouraging transfer agreements between and among public universities and colleges in the region. The Association of Atlantic Universities (AAU) and the Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) and their member institutions have endorsed the MOU encouraging transfer agreements between and among public universities and community colleges in Atlantic Canada.

A provincial Credit Transfer Web portal is to be completed and launched in 2010.The portal will initially focus on transfer credits between New Brunswick institutions and will expand as the project progresses. The Web Portal will simplify the accessibility of credit transfer information for institutions and New Brunswickers for the benefits of increased access to both credit transfer and recognition of prior learning. This portal will simplify service provision for institutions while ensuring timely service based on a quality assurance model.

External and Internal Review

As Crown Corporations, NBCC and CCNB develop new program proposals and conduct internal reviews of existing programs. Program advisory committees with external representation from industry are employed in this process. Proposals on the need for new programs and significant program changes are reviewed by the NBCC management team, according to guidelines approved by the Minister. Those programs identified for analysis are subsequently reviewed to determine if necessary resources are available to deliver the program, following which a decision is made and financial support is determined. Programs that undergo less significant change to curriculum are reviewed by the colleges in consultation with related program advisory committees.

Additional quality assurance activities are provided by a Quality Management Unit (QMU), which conducts ongoing audits of programs and services at all locations, and whose reports are forwarded to the NBCC and CCNB Management Teams, as well as to the ministry. All college programs are reviewed annually for performance on a number of factors including retention, graduation and employment rates, and student satisfaction. Further, programs are updated at least every three years in consultation with program advisory committees.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

The Apprenticeship and Occupational Certification Act provide the Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour with responsibility for the administration of apprenticeship and certification in New Brunswick in designated occupations. The act also establishes the minister-appointed Apprenticeship and Occupational Certification Board and program advisory committees in designated occupations.

The board's main function is to advise the minister on matters relating to apprenticeship including the designation of occupations, prerequisites for entry to the program and guidelines for implementation of training. The department is responsible for approving programs of study; providing periodic tests; supervising all training and approval of facilities; and approving of courses of study in pre-apprenticeship programs.

External and Internal Review

The Apprenticeship and Occupational Certification Board is responsible for developing the curriculum of the in-class portion of apprenticeship training and for providing it to training deliverers. Although there is no prohibition to other deliverers providing this training, NBCC is currently the main provider of in-school apprenticeship training.

Quality of the program delivery is monitored through student surveys, on-site visits, and the success rates of technical training examinations and final examinations (Certificate of Qualifications).

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada formerly Human Resources Development Canada) to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Trades Qualification bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition in most jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college and institute programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

The Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) was established in 1998 as an informal consortium of departments and institutions to enhance cooperation across the community colleges in the four Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The activities, initiatives, and projects of the consortium are designed to reflect the values and principles agreed to by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) in A Report on Public Expectations of Postsecondary Education in Canada (February 1999). Key areas of performance expectations demonstrating these values and principles include quality and accountability among others. The primary activities of the consortium include sharing information, issues, and solutions and generally promoting consistency, cooperation, joint initiatives, and transferability across institutions. The impact of the consortium on program quality is indirect.

Membership in the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is not mandatory for NBCC and CCNB, but they are both members. ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

The Atlantic Apprenticeship Council (AAC) was established to share common concerns and economical opportunities for cooperation among apprenticeship programs in the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island). Apprenticeship training programs in the Atlantic provinces ensure consistent standards of achievement by using the same training standards in a large number of trades and Red Seal examinations for Certificates of Qualifications.

The New Brunswick Association of Career Colleges (NBACC) represents the interests of private career colleges across New Brunswick and is affiliated with the National Association of Career Colleges.


toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

The Private Occupational Training Act and its regulation, administered by the Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour, have been established to regulate private sector training organizations delivering occupational training in a number of disciplines. The legislation is primarily established to provide financial protection for students attending private sector training organizations. In addition to registering the organization, programs, and teacher-instructors, the act and its regulation provide for the establishment of a Training Completions Fund. This fund, administered by a minister-appointed board, may be used to complete the training of students who may be affected by a failure or closure of a registered training organization. The fund can also be used to reimburse students when they are unable to complete their training.

The legislation also provides for a mandatory contract between the training organization and the student. There are a number of elements in the contract pertaining to areas such as competencies expected, teacher-instructor qualifications, course content, maximum class size, and prerequisites for admission. The training organizations are monitored to ensure that the organization is in compliance with the act and its regulation. 

External and Internal Review

Information on internal review processes may be obtained from individually registered private vocational schools.

The NBACC provides its membership with Quality Assurance and Instructor Development programs to ensure that colleges are meeting or exceeding the quality standards expected throughout the sector.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

In addition to the above statutes and regulations, all New Brunswick universities are established under individual statutes.

Most provincial legislation can be accessed through the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour
Chestnut Complex
470 York Street
Fredericton, New Brunswick
E3B 5H1  Canada
Web Site: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/post-secondary_education_training_and_labour.html
 
Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC)
82 Westmorland Street, Suite 401
P.O. Box 6000
Fredericton, New Brunswick
E3B 5H1 Canada
Tel: (506) 453-2844
Fax: (506) 453-2106
Web site: http://www.mphec.ca/

Revision: 2012-01-24


Quality Assurance for Postsecondary Institutions in Newfoundland and Labrador

The postsecondary education system in Newfoundland and Labrador is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of post-secondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in Newfoundland and Labrador's post-secondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

The Memorial University Act establishes Newfoundland and Labrador's only university. The statute outlines the university's authority to govern itself through the operations of a Board of Regents and Senate. These bodies have the authority to determine all matters relating to programs, qualifications of employees, and all other matters deemed to be in the interest of the institution. No explicit reference is made to accountability mechanisms or quality assurance of educational programming. Program quality responsibilities are implied through the powers and duties assigned to institutions' internal governing bodies.

The act provides the university with the authority to establish affiliations with colleges or institutions in specifically identified program areas. Criteria for establishing affiliations are set out.

The act also establishes the Marine Institute as part of Memorial University.

The Marine Institute was formerly known as the Newfoundland and Labrador Institute of Fisheries and Marine Technology and became part of Memorial University in 1992 and is recognized as such in the Memorial University Act.

Affiliation

The Eastern Regional Health Authority's Centre for Nursing Studies and the Western Regional Health Authority's Western Regional School of Nursing are affiliated with Memorial University's School of Nursing through a consortium agreement for the delivery of a Bachelor of Nursing (Collaborative) degree. The degree follows Memorial's curriculum and graduates receive a Memorial University degree, but each site is administered separately. Memorial's Corner Brook campus, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, provides some support services to the Western Regional School of Nursing. All nursing graduates in Newfoundland and Labrador must have degrees in nursing.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

The Council on Higher Education promotes collaboration in the public postsecondary education system by providing recommendations to Memorial University, College of the North Atlantic and the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills on shared program areas, strategic direction and other related issues. The Council also compiles an annual transfer guide that includes transfer of credit arrangements for courses and programs within the provincial postsecondary system.

The Council was originally established in 1992. In 2005, the Province released Foundations for Success: White Paper on Public Post-Secondary Education. This policy document was commissioned as part of government's continued commitment to provide affordable and accessible post-secondary education opportunities. In light of the recommendations put forth in the White Paper, a reconfigured council was recognized in legislation through the Council on Higher Education Act, which was proclaimed January 26, 2007.

External and Internal Review

Approval of new university programs and all matters of an academic character are contained within the University, and specifically within the Senate.

At the graduate level, all new proposed graduate programs, having first been examined within the originating department are subsequently and progressively reviewed by the Committee on Graduate Studies, the Faculty Council, and the Graduate Council, with final approval given by the Senate.

At the undergraduate level, all new proposed undergraduate programs, having first been examined within the originating department are subsequently and progressively reviewed by the Undergraduate Studies Committee of Faculty, the Faculty Council, and the Senate Committee on Undergraduate Studies, with final approval given by the Senate.

The quality of existing university programs is addressed though an internal process of self-study and review. Each department conducts its own program reviews and prepares reports for a review committee composed of two members external to the university and two members external to the department. The committee reviews the reports and prepares responses that are used by the department in its strategic planning process. These quality assurance procedures are conducted for all academic units in a seven year cycle.

Memorial's Board of Regents must report annually to the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills in accordance with the Transparency and Accountability Act. The Minister tables the Board's report in the Legislature.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

Memorial University is a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). Although the association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions; the range of program offerings; the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions; the size of enrolment, institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research; and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Public Colleges

Legislation

The College Act establishes the only public community college in Newfoundland and Labrador. College of the North Atlantic is the result of a merging of the network of Newfoundland and Labrador's five community colleges into a single institution. Under the act, the College is responsible for providing a broad range of educational opportunities, particularly in the fields of applied arts and technology, vocational training, and adult education. The Board of Governors of the College is responsible for the governance, conduct of operations, management, and control of the institution including educational policies and activities that relate to quality assurance in the following areas:

  • establishing courses of study
  • standards of admission
  • qualifications for diplomas
  • organizing examinations and examiners
  • creating academic boards and committees
  • recruiting all employees with the exception of the president, who is appointed by the provincial government

The Board of Governors must report annually to the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills. The Minister tables the Board's report with the Legislature.

The provincial government may also make regulations with respect to instructor certification and academic and professional standards for instructors. Provincial government policy has been developed on instructors' qualification requirements.

Affiliation

College of the North Atlantic has developed transfer agreements with Memorial University of Newfoundland, Cape Breton University, Alberta's Athabasca University, Lakehead University and Laurentian University in Ontario, British Columbia's Royal Roads University and Thompson Rivers University, and the University of New Brunswick. These agreements permit students in qualifying programs to transfer from college diploma to university degree programs, reducing the time and financial resources required to complete a continuing advanced diploma or degree program. The College also has a comprehensive agreement with the State of Qatar, and Memoranda of Understanding with Jamaica to provide student-training services, and with four institutions on the French islands of Pierre and Miquelon for exchange programs and professional development. The College also has a contract to provide services in China.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

The Council on Higher Education promotes collaboration in the public post-secondary education system by providing recommendations to Memorial University (Memorial), College of the North Atlantic (CNA) and the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills on shared program areas.

The Council was originally established in 1992. In 2005, the Province released Foundations for Success: White Paper on Public Post-Secondary Education. This policy document was commissioned as part of government's continued commitment to provide affordable and accessible post-secondary education opportunities. In light of the recommendations put forth in the White Paper, a reconfigured council was recognized in legislation through the Council on Higher Education Act (the Act) which was proclaimed January 26, 2007. The Council compiles an annual transfer guide that includes transfer of credit arrangements for courses and programs within the provincial post-secondary system.

In July 2000, colleges of the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) signed a memorandum of understanding to "maximize the recognition and transfer of learning acquired through formal education, workplace training, and work and life experience." In accordance with this memorandum, member colleges have agreed to transfer credits for all courses to programs delivered by other members.

Credit transfers between College of the North Atlantic and other Canadian community colleges and universities are considered by program and administrative staff on a case-by-case basis that includes a review of course content, student evaluation methods, and instructor qualifications.

External and Internal Review

College of the North Atlantic's programs are reviewed internally by college program staff on a regular basis for updating and to ensure relevance to the demands of the marketplace. There are no external review organizations to which the college is formally accountable for program quality.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Public Colleges

College of the North Atlantic is a member of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

The Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) was established in 1998 as an informal consortium of departments and institutions to enhance cooperation across the community colleges in the four Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The activities, initiatives, and projects of the consortium are designed to reflect the values and principles agreed to by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) in A Report on Public Expectations of Postsecondary Education in Canada (February 1999). The key areas of performance expectations demonstrating these values and principles include quality and accountability among others. The primary activities of the consortium include sharing information, issues, and solutions and generally promoting consistency, cooperation, joint initiatives, and transferability across institutions. The impact of the consortium on program quality is indirect.

toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

The Private Training Institutions Act establishes a provincially appointed superintendent of private training institutions. All operating private training institutions must be registered and must satisfy the superintendent that they have competent instructors and sufficient equipment for the teaching of designated programs and can provide instruction at reasonable rates. To ensure that institutions are complying with the legislation, the provincial government conducts yearly inspections.

The provincial government may also make regulations with respect to prescribing the training, equipment, and means of instruction to be used; requiring the approval of the superintendent for courses of study, requirements for admission, qualifications of teachers, and demonstrators' methods of instruction; premises and equipment; and prescribing the minimum number of hours of instruction.

The regulations under the Private Training Institutions Act are extensive and include specific criteria for instructor qualifications.

External and Internal Review

Information on internal review processes may be obtained from individually registered private training institutions.

The superintendent of private training institutions in Newfoundland and Labrador reviews and approves every course of study prior to registration of the institutions. Before approving a course of study, the following information must be provided by applicants:

  • a needs assessment, including a market analysis
  • admission standards
  • curriculum content
  • program duration
  • graduate certification

To ensure compliance with the Private Training Institutions Act and Regulations, the Department of Advanced Education and Skills has three regional program consultants whose responsibilities include direct liaison with their regional private training institutions, as well as conducting periodic visits, and, most importantly, yearly compliance review.

Students enrolled in programs in registered private training institutions are eligible to apply for student assistance.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

The Apprenticeship and Certification Act governs apprenticeship training in Newfoundland and Labrador. The Minister of Advanced Education and Skills has authority over apprenticeship matters. The act requires that the Minister appoint a provincial apprenticeship and certification board and that the Board be directly accountable to the minister. The mandate of the Provincial Apprenticeship and Certification Board is very broad covering a number of apprenticeship training issues. The Board:

  • sets policies to ensure that the Apprenticeship and Certification Training Act is implemented;
  • accredits institutions to deliver apprenticeship programs;
  • designates occupations for apprenticeship training and/or certification;
  • establishes Provincial Advisory Committees for each designated occupation;
  • establishes examination committees to conduct practical examinations for apprentices and trade qualifiers;
  • approves Plans of Training; and
  • provides advice to government on labour market matters related to training and certification.
External and Internal Review

The Provincial Apprenticeship and Certification Board accredits apprenticeship programs offered by both public colleges and private training institutions to ensure standards are consistent across institutions delivering provincial curriculum and to ensure credit transferability between institutions for students completing training; it develops the form and contents of plans of training and determines and approves the objectives of every course of instruction included in plans of training. The Board develops a memorandum of understanding for apprenticeship for designated occupations and determines all disputes related to them. Further it can revoke journey person certification in the cases of a fraudulent application.

The quality of apprenticeship training is also monitored through graduate surveys and review of student success rates on certification qualifying examinations.

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Trades Qualifications bearing the Red Seal is recognized in all Canadian jurisdictions.

The Atlantic Apprenticeship Council (AAC) was established to share common concerns and economical opportunities for cooperation among apprenticeship programs in the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island). AAC's priority is to adopt common standards for training in selected trade apprenticeship programs, including standards for curriculum development. Apprenticeship training programs in the Atlantic provinces ensure consistent standards of achievement by using the same interprovincial standards for Certificate of Qualifications and Red Seal examinations.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Provincial legislation can be directly accessed on the Internet at http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Advanced Education and Skills
Confederation Building, 4th Floor, West Block
P.O. Box 8700
St. John's, Newfoundland
A1B 4J6 Canada
Web site: http://www.aes.gov.nl.ca/
 
Newfoundland and Labrador Council on Higher Education
Confederation Building, 4th Floor, West Block
P.O. Box 8700
St. John's, Newfoundland
A1B 4J6 Canada
Tel: (709) 729-2450
Fax: (709) 729-3590

Revision: 2010-08-17


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in the Northwest Territories

The postsecondary education system in the Northwest Territories is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into three categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in the Northwest Territories postsecondary education system vary by type of program. They include:

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Colleges

Legislation

The Aurora College Act establishes the only public community college in the Northwest Territories. Under the Act, the Minister of Education, Culture and Employment is responsible for postsecondary education. Aurora College is responsible for delivering adult and postsecondary programs, including the delivery of university-level programs and the granting of certificates, diplomas, and prescribed university degrees. The Minister is responsible for establishing programs and courses and for determining college operational policies.

The Act provides the Minister with the authority to establish a Board of Governors for the college. The board is responsible for recommending priorities for programs and courses and college admission requirements to the Minister.

The Board of Governors is required to submit an annual report to the Minister within three months of the end of the fiscal year. The report must state the activities of the college during the fiscal year and include the auditor's report and the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding fiscal year. The Minister tables the board's report in the Legislative Assembly.

Affiliation

Aurora College has no affiliations with universities. However, it does have a number of program-specific collaboration and articulation agreements and memoranda of understanding with several universities.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Aurora College has program-specific collaboration and articulation agreements with several universities whereby diploma credits from a two-year (or, in some cases, three-year) program can be block transferred into a university bachelor's degree program. Additionally, Aurora College has agreements with universities whereby all of a university program can be taken at the college and credited by the university. Program standards are identified in the agreements and maintained through the review process at each institution.

External and Internal Review

Aurora College has policies and procedures for the evaluation of programs and services that are approved by the Board of Governors. Degree, diploma, and certificate programs are internally reviewed following a schedule approved by the Board of Governors. Programs may also undergo external review as deemed necessary by external partners and the Department of Education, Culture and Employment

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions. For example, the Registered Nurses Association of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is responsible for nursing education standards in NWT and for conducting reviews of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing and the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner Primary Health Care Stream Program at Aurora College.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

Apprenticeship training in the Northwest Territories comprises a combination of workplace training and educational class instruction. The Apprenticeship, Trade and Occupations Certification Act establishes the Department of Education, Culture and Employment as the public authority responsible for apprenticeship matters. The Act establishes the Apprenticeship, Trade and Occupations Certification Board. The Board's main function is to advise the Minister of Education on matters relating to training and the certification of people in designated trades and occupations. In advising the Minister, the Board draws upon the expertise of local Apprenticeship Advisory Committees appointed by the Department's Supervisor of Apprenticeship, Trade, and Occupations Certification.

The regulations under the Act also provide the government with extensive authority to regulate apprenticeship. These regulations address qualifications for apprenticeship, providing examinations, establishing standards for examinations, and providing for inspection of training. The regulations also provide the Department's Supervisor of Apprenticeship, Trade, and Occupations Certification with the authority to establish the contents of and standards for the in-school portion of apprenticeship training, known as the trade instruction courses and examinations. The supervisor must approve the location of trade instruction courses, the major pieces of equipment used in the instruction, the instructional materials, and the curriculum. The regulation also directly addresses instructor qualifications.

External and Internal Review

The NWT Apprenticeship Program administers all aspects of apprenticeship training within the territory. Apprentices and tradespersons are registered in the program and monitored while gaining experience on the work site. Apprentices attend technical training to fulfill the requirements for certification. Operational reviews are executed through employer satisfaction surveys and board reports. The NWT Apprenticeship Review Board, made up of industry representatives, and government, conducts accreditation reviews for all the trades training at Aurora College.

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Qualification bearing the Red Seal endorsement provides evidence of meeting the interprovincial standard for certification and is recognized throughout Canada. For employers, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

Aurora College is a member of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

toc / tdm Private Training

Legislation

The Northwest Territories does not have legislation to register private training institutions. The Minister has a Private Vocational Training Directive and has developed guidelines to ensure compliance by customer institutions, as well as consumer protection. Students have access to a limited amount of private training approved through this Directive and through the Department of Education, Culture and Employment's Student Financial Assistance Program.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Territorial legislation can be directly accessed on the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Education, Culture and Employment
Public Affairs
P.O. Box 1320
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
X1A 2L9 Canada
Tel.: (867) 920-6222
Fax: (867) 873-0155
Web site: http://www.ece.gov.nt.ca/

List of recognized degree-granting and non-degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the Northwest Territories

Revision: 2010-10-08


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Nova Scotia

The postsecondary education system in Nova Scotia is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Mechanisms that manage Nova Scotia's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Universities and University Colleges

Legislation

Nova Scotia's degree-granting institutions are either universities or university colleges. Each institution is established by individual statute. The authority of each institution to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors and in some cases a senate is outlined in these statutes, their regulations, and bylaws established by their boards of governors. In most cases, Nova Scotia universities have the authority to determine all matters relating to programs, qualifications of employees, and all other matters deemed to be in the interest of the institutions. Statutes establishing individual institutions do not contain explicit reference to mechanisms for or accountabilities pertaining to quality assurance of educational programming. Program quality responsibilities are implied through the powers and duties assigned to institutions' internal governing bodies.

The Degree Granting Act protects the integrity of Nova Scotia university credentials by providing the provincial government with sole authority to authorize the province's degree-granting institutions. Under this statute, the minister may also require an inspection of any private institution if there are reasonable and probable grounds to believe that the institution has contravened the Degree Granting Act or its regulations.

The Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC) was established in 1974 as an agency of the Council of Atlantic Premiers and acts as a regional agency for postsecondary education in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The Maritime Provinces Higher Education Act was enacted in all three provinces establishing the commission.

In 1997, the ministers of education in the Maritime provinces agreed to renew and refocus the commission's mandate through "An Agreement Respecting the Renewal of Arrangements for Regional Cooperation Concerning Post-Secondary Education." Under this agreement, the commission has the responsibility for quality assurance, data and information collection, cooperative action, and regional programs. In January 2005, the new MPHEC Act was proclaimed in each of the Maritime Provinces giving force to the Commission's new mandate.

Affiliation

A formal affiliation exists between the Atlantic School of Theology and Saint Mary's University. A formal arrangement exists between the Canadian Coast Guard College and the Cape Breton University. The Nova Scotia Agricultural College and the University of King's College are associated with Dalhousie University.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Nova Scotia has no systematic, province-wide process for conducting credit transfers to and from universities and colleges. The flexibility and details of credit transfer procedures vary by institution. Generally speaking, requests from students for credit transfers from one university program to another, as well as to and from community college programs, are initially reviewed at the receiving institution by faculty and senior program staff. Reviews are often conducted on a course-by-course basis and involve negotiations concerning such factors as the content, level, evaluation component, and instructor qualifications for each course. Decisions made by receiving institutions are final.

Articulation agreements are in place between some Nova Scotia universities and the province's community college. Through these agreements, specific academic programs are jointly developed, delivery is shared, and the universities grant the degrees. The quality of these joint programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

In June 2009, the Association of Atlantic Universities (AAU) and the Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to provide a means for students to transfer among the region's public community colleges and universities to support the objective that students should not have to repeat formal learning experiences.

External and Internal Review

The quality of Nova Scotia's university programs is addressed in three additional ways. First, programs are evaluated by the university's own process of self-study and review conducted in accordance with internal policies and procedures. Second, the MPHEC reviews new or modified academic programs prior to implementation to assure that programs meet agreed-upon standards of quality. The third major quality assurance activity is the MPHEC's monitoring of quality assurance policies used by institutions to assess the quality of existing programs. The specific objective of the MPHEC monitoring function is to ascertain that the policies and procedures used by institutions to assess the quality of existing programs are performing adequately as quality control and quality improvement mechanisms. A key outcome of the process is to provide assistance and advice to institutions on ways to enhance their current quality assurance policy and procedures. Full details on quality assurance procedures used by the MPHEC are available on their Web site.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

Nova Scotia universities belong to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). Although the association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions, the range of program offerings, the breadth and depth of programs, the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions, the size of enrolment, institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research, and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in accreditation of educational programs. Information on the activities of these professions with colleges and universities can be accessed through the AAAC Web site.

toc / tdm Colleges

Legislation

The Community Colleges Act establishes the Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC). (Collège de l'Acadie merged with Université Sainte-Anne in 2002.) As established by legislation, quality assurance of educational programs is a shared responsibility between the provincial government and NSCC's governing body. NSCC has responsibility for "enhancing the economic and social well-being of the province by meeting the occupational training requirements of the population and the labour market of the province." The college is also mandated to participate in joint programs with respect to education and training and related services developed and delivered in conjunction with other postsecondary institutions and educational bodies.

The Community Colleges Act establishes a board of governors as the governing body of the NSCC. Among the boards responsibilities are:

  • establishing programs of study,
  • providing for the granting of community college certificates and diplomas (the college does not grant degrees),
  • publishing an annual academic report on enrolment, attrition, graduation, and graduate employment placement,
  • evaluating programs of study on a regular basis in accordance with guidelines approved by the minister,
  • conducting, at least every five years, special organizational and operational reviews in accordance with guidelines approved by the minister.

On the recommendation of the minister, the government may appoint an administrator of a community college if the board of governors takes up a practice or tolerates a situation incompatible with the mandate of the college or the act or if in the opinion of the minister, it is otherwise in the public interest to do so.

Under the Community Colleges Act, the minister is responsible for approving guidelines for conducting internal reviews of existing programs. Approval of all new programs also rests with the minister. The minister may appoint and give extensive inspection powers to a person or committee to review and evaluate any program offered by the colleges, their mandates, or any other matter relating to the development, content, or delivery of a program by the colleges. Finally, the college is required to submit to the department, annual reports that must include audited financial statements and any other information that the minister requests. The minister must in turn, table the reports in the provincial Legislature.

The Community Colleges Act also establishes college program advisory committees primarily composed of representatives from industry. These committees are responsible for advising the board of governors and making recommendations regarding new and existing programs of study.

Affiliation

The Nova Scotia Community College has a number of formal affiliations with universities. For further information contact individual institutions.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

In July 2000 the colleges of the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) signed a memorandum of understanding to "maximize the recognition and transfer of learning acquired through formal education, workplace training, and work and life experience." In accordance with this memorandum, member colleges have agreed to transfer credits for all courses to approved programs delivered by other members.

Credit transfers between Nova Scotia's community colleges and non-Atlantic community colleges and universities are considered by program and administrative staff on a course-by-course basis that includes such factors as a review of course content, student evaluation methods, and instructor qualifications.

In June 2009, the Association of Atlantic Universities (AAU) and the Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to provide a means for students to transfer among the region's public community colleges and universities to support the objective that students should not have to repeat formal learning experiences.

External and Internal Review

In accordance with the Community Colleges Act, existing community college programs are evaluated internally by college program staff on a regular basis for updating and to ensure relevance to the demands of the marketplace.

All new community college programs are also subject to review and approval by the department, whose staff examine proposals from a content perspective as well as in relation to institutional capacity and market demand.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

The apprenticeship training is a method of learning a skilled trade through a combination of practical training (about 85%) in the workplace and in-class or Internet technical training (about 15%). An individual who wants to learn a skilled trade through apprenticeship training must be employed in one of Nova Scotia's 65 designated trades. The employer must be willing to register the employee through a formal apprenticeship registration agreement recognized by the Director of Apprenticeship Training. The training consists of three to four years, depending on the trade. The on-the-job practical training is guided by a logbook for each trade that is given to the apprentice to have completed by the journeyperson who supervises and mentors the apprentice. The logbook consists of the skills to be learned. The in-class training consists of standards that coincide with the on-the-job skills and must be completed. When the apprentice has successfully completed all of the on-the-job and in-class training, the apprentice writes a certification examination. Upon successful completion of the examination, the apprentice receives a Certificate of Apprenticeship and a Certificate of Qualification in that trade from the Department of Labour and Workforce Development.

Legislation

The legislative authority for the apprenticeship system in Nova Scotia is the Apprenticeship and Trades Qualifications Act and General Regulations. Under the Act, the Minister of Labour and Workforce Development is responsible for the general supervision and management of the Act and regulations. The Director is responsible for the administration of the Act and regulations and the associated employees. In addition, about 37 of the 65 designated trades have trade specific regulations. Currently, 12 of the 65 trades are compulsory certified trades, meaning that to legally perform the work of the trade, a person must have a Certificate of Qualification in the trade, be a registered Apprenticeship in the trade, or hold a Temporary Permit in the trade.

The Provincial Apprenticeship Board

Under the Act, the Minister may appoint a Board made up of an equal number of employer and employee representatives that are knowledgeable about the trades to act in an advisory capacity to the Minister. The Board makes recommendations to the Minister on any matters relating to the apprenticeship system such as the designation of new trades. The Board also conducts research, organizes forums on matters related to apprenticeship, and assists in promoting the benefits of apprenticeship. The Board may, in consultation with the Director, Apprenticeship Training, appoint an ad hoc advisory committee, made up of industry representatives, to seek advice on any matters concerning the apprenticeship system.

Standards

Under the General Regulations made pursuant to the Apprenticeship and Trades Qualifications Act, the government has authority to prescribe the standards, length, content, and number of technical training classes to be completed by an apprentice or persons eligible for related post-journeyperson upgrade training. This work is conducted by staff of the Apprenticeship Training Division. There are currently 34 full time staff members that work the Apprenticeship Training Division in eight offices throughout the province. The Apprenticeship Training Division employs Industrial Training and Certification Officers who work with employers and apprentices, Program Development staff, Administration staff, Compliance Officers, and a Youth Apprenticeship Coordinator.

The Nova Scotia Apprenticeship system subscribes to the Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program. Fifty (50) of the 65 trades are designated for Red Seal endorsement. Journeypersons holding Certificates of Qualification bearing a Red Seal enjoy full labour mobility across Canada without further training and examination.

The Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of apprenticeship training in all Canadian jurisdictions. The Red Seal program was developed in cooperation with the Federal Government to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater inter-jurisdictional employment mobility for certified journeypersons. A provincial Certificate of Qualification bearing the Red Seal provides recognition that a national standard has been met. Through this program the national occupational analyses are developed and updated regularly to reflect technological advances in the trades. These serve as the base document for the development of the interprovincial examinations set for Red Seal trades.

The Red Seal Program is administered by the Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) and funded by Human resources and Skills Development Canada. Each Director of Apprenticeship for each jurisdiction in Canada sits as a member of the CCDA.

The Atlantic Apprenticeship Council (AAC) is made up of the four directors of apprenticeship and the chairs of the four provincial apprenticeship boards. It is a forum for sharing common concerns, best practices, and opportunities for cooperation among the Atlantic provinces. Detailed information about initiatives in the Atlantic provinces that enhance apprenticeship systems such as essential skills, prior learning assessment and recognition, promotion to diversity groups, and youth apprenticeship is shared and propels such initiatives to multiply in the region. The primary focus of the AAC, since 1998, has been the development of common technical training standards, now complete in 22 trades. This initiative ensures consistent standards of achievement and facilitates mobility of apprentices in the region.

External and Internal Review

The Nova Scotia Community College is the primary deliverer of apprenticeship technical training. It provides both traditional classroom and on-line options for apprentices. Technical training is also provided by the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing & Pipefitting Industry, Local 56; the Nova Scotia Agricultural College; Local 116, Heat and Frost Insulators Union; and the Nova Scotia Boatbuilders Association. In practice, department staff works with these training providers to develop training standards and examination item banks based on the national occupational analysis for the trade. All training standards, program structure, records of occupational progress, and examination items banks are validated by industry.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

The Nova Scotia Community College is a member of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). The ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards, by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

The Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) was established in 1998 as an informal consortium of departments and institutions to enhance cooperation across the community colleges in the four Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The activities, initiatives, and projects of the consortium are designed to reflect the values and principles [PDF] agreed to by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). Key areas of performance expectations that reflect these values include quality and accountability. The primary activities of the APCCC include sharing information, issues, and solutions and generally promoting consistency, cooperation, joint initiatives, and transferability across institutions. The impact of the consortium on program quality is indirect.

toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

The Private Career Colleges Regulation Act sets out requirements for the registration of private postsecondary training institutions in Nova Scotia. No private postsecondary training school may operate in the province unless it has a certificate of registration issued by the Department of Education or exempt under the legislation.

Through the regulations under the Private Career Colleges Regulation Act, the department has authority to prescribe the qualifications for instructors, entrance requirements for students, and impose industry standards for curriculum. The department also sets the parameters around professional development for instructors.

Students who attend training programs registered with the department may be eligible to apply for student financial assistance.

External and Internal Review

Private career colleges register with the Department of Education and submit detailed documentation on all new, proposed programs for approval by the department in relation to items such as content and curriculum, instructor qualifications, organizational capacity to deliver, and all other matters listed in the regulations. The department also conducts internal reviews of registered colleges on an annual basis and has extensive powers of either scheduled or unscheduled inspection. External reviews relate to third party reviews of programs and/or instructor applications where recognized associations or industry experts are utilized.

For information on inspection or review processes, please refer to the Act and Regulations and the Private Career Colleges Web site.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Most provincial legislation can be accessed through the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Education
P.O. Box 578
2021 Brunswick Street, Suite 402
Halifax, Nova Scotia  B3J 2S9 Canada
Tel: (902) 424-5168 Fax: (902) 424-0511
Web site: http://www.ednet.ns.ca/

List of recognized degree-granting and non-degree-granting postsecondary institutions in Nova Scotia

Revision: 2011-01-04


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Nunavut

The postsecondary education system in Nunavut is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into two categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in the Nunavut postsecondary education system vary by type of program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Colleges

Legislation

The Public Colleges Act establishes the only community college in Nunavut. Nunavut Arctic College is responsible for delivering adult and postsecondary programs, including the delivery of university-level programs through agreement with particular universities and the granting of certificates and diplomas. Under the act, the minister of education is responsible for postsecondary education, including establishing programs and courses, and determining college operational policies.

The Public Colleges Act establishes a board of governors of Nunavut Arctic College, which is accountable to the minister and responsible for recommending to the minister priorities for programs and courses, establishing college admission requirements, and making bylaws with respect to academic standards. The board of governors must submit an annual report to the minister. The minister must table the board's report with the Legislature.

Under the Public Colleges Act, the minister may appoint a person to investigate any matter connected with the management, administration, or operation of the college. The minister may also appoint an administrator of the college if it is in the public interest to do so.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Nunavut Arctic College has articulation agreements in a number of programs with several universities whereby the first two years of college programs can be taken and accredited by the universities. The quality of these joint programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

External and Internal Review

College programs undergo evaluation. The framework for review follows standard evaluation practices common in the Canadian college environment and includes consultation with a broad range of stakeholders to ensure credibility and usefulness. There are no external review organizations to which the college is formally accountable for program quality; however, the president is required to report to the minister for approval of new programs and significant changes to existing programs.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

Apprenticeship training in the Nunavut comprises a combination of workplace training and educational class instruction. The Apprenticeship, Trade and Occupations Certification Act [PDF] establishes the Nunavut government as the public authority responsible for apprenticeship. The act establishes an Apprenticeship, Trade and Occupations Certification Board. The board's main function is to advise the minister of education on matters relating to training and the certification of people in designated trades and occupations. In advising the minister, the board draws upon the expertise of local apprenticeship advisory committees appointed by the department's supervisor of apprenticeship, trade and occupations certification.

The act also provides the government with extensive authority to regulate apprenticeship. The regulations [PDF] under the act address qualifications for apprenticeship, provide and establish standards for examinations, and provide for inspection of training. The regulations also provide the department's supervisor of apprenticeship, trade and occupations certification with the authority to establish the contents of and standards for the in-school portion of apprenticeship training, known as the trade instruction courses and examinations. The supervisor must approve the location of trade instruction courses, the major pieces of equipment used in the instruction, the instructional materials, and the curriculum. The regulation also directly addresses instructor qualifications.

External and Internal Review

Nunavut Arctic College, Aurora College in the Northwest Territories, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), and Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) deliver most of the in-school educational class instruction in apprenticeship programs. The Apprenticeship, Trade and Occupations Certification Board sets the curriculum and provides it to the institutions. Quality of programming is monitored through mechanisms such as graduate surveys.

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A Certificate of Trades Qualifications bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition in most jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

Nunavut Arctic College is a member the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices in accreditation of educational programs. Information on the activities of these professions with colleges and universities can be accessed through the AAAC Web site.

toc / tdm Private Training

There are no private training organizations in Nunavut.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Territorial legislation and regulations can be directly accessed on the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Education
P.O. Box 1000
Stn 980
Iqaluit, Nunavut
X0A 0H0 Canada
Phone: (867) 975-5600
Fax: (867) 975-5635
Web site: http://www.edu.gov.nu.ca/

List of recognized postsecondary institutions in Nunavut

Revision: 2010-05-03


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Ontario

The postsecondary education system in Ontario is described in the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials's (CICIC's) document, Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into the following five categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality-assurance mechanisms in Ontario's postsecondary-education system vary by type of institution and by program. The mechanisms include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • key performance indicators (KPI)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Public Universities

Legislation

Many of Ontario's degree-granting institutions have individual statutes. The authority of each institution to govern itself is outlined in these statutes. Each institution operates independently and determines its own academic and admissions policies, programs, and staff appointments. The statutes establishing these institutions do not contain explicit reference to mechanisms for, or accountabilities pertaining to, quality assurance of educational programming.

Key performance indicators

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities requires all postsecondary institutions that offer Ontario student loans to provide students with information on three indicators: graduate employment rates, graduations rates, and OSAP (Ontario Student Assistance Program) loan default rates. Registered private career colleges that are eligible to deliver OSAP loans are required to provide information on loan default rates. The purpose of these indicators is to assist students in making educational choices.

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities also requires that universities have a portion of their operating grant determined by their performance in three areas: graduate employment rates six months after graduation, graduate employment rates two years after graduation, and graduation rates. The purpose of these indicators is to reward those institutions that do the best job of helping graduates complete their studies and secure employment upon graduation.

Affiliation

Ontario public universities have formal academic agreements with federates and affiliates.

Credit transfer and articulation

While a province-wide process for conducting credit transfer does not exist, Ontario has encouraged colleges and universities in the province to work together to develop collaborative arrangements between the institutions. These arrangements include credit transfer agreements, degree-completion programs, concurrent and consecutive programs, and joint-integrated programming.

Through credit-transfer arrangements, colleges and universities mutually recognize some of the learning achieved by a student in the other sector. Credit-transfer agreements can take the form of formal articulation agreements between institutions or be on an ad hoc basis. Some or all of the credits achieved by a student in one institution may be recognized by another institution. Details of credit-transfer arrangements among Ontario's publicly funded colleges and universities can be found in the Ontario College University Transfer Guide.

The Ontario College University Degree Completion Accord sets out a series of principles for developing degree-completion arrangements between publicly funded colleges and universities.

Through this type of arrangement, colleges and at least one university negotiate an articulation agreement under which graduates of a diploma program will receive full credit toward a university degree for their diploma program. Each agreement requires approval by the relevant government bodies of the institutions.

Through concurrent programs, institutions partner to offer two programs, one leading to a diploma, the other to a degree. Partnering institutions work out their own administrative governance functions.

Another form of credit recognition between institutions occurs through consecutive programming. Under this form of agreement, colleges and universities negotiate an agreement on block transfer of credit for related programs. The block credit-transfer agreement usually specifies less than full credit for the full diploma program. Admission preference is usually given to graduates of the relevant diploma program.

Through joint-integrated programs, two or more distinct "free-standing" programs in two or more institutions are integrated into one program. The program is delivered by one or more institutions from each sector. For example, Sheridan College and York University offer a bachelor of design honours degree. Students receive one degree in four years, with courses taught at both institutions.

External and internal review

For existing public Ontario universities, program-quality responsibilities are overseen by the Ontario Universities Council on Quality Assurance through the implementation of Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework.  All new undergraduate and graduate program proposals are subject to arm's-length external review prior to submission to the Quality Council for approval. The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities reviews new programs for duplication.

Existing undergraduate and graduate programs at publicly assisted universities are assessed at least every eight years under the protocols defined in the Quality Assurance Framework which include a requirement for arm's-length external review of the program. Many public universities also undergo accreditation at the program level by various provincial, national and international program-accreditation agencies, such as those approved by the U.S Department of Education.

The Ontario Universities Council on Quality Assurance conducts a Quality Assurance Audit at each publicly assisted university every eight years to ensure compliance with the protocols of the Quality Assurance Framework.


Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in public universities

Ontario public universities are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. One private university, Redeemer University College, is also a member.

Although the association does not perform formal quality-assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions; the range of program offerings; the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions; the size of enrolment; institutional focus on scholarship; academic inquiry and research; and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee, which reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution provides education of university-level standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Private and Out-of-Province Institutions with Authority to Grant Degrees in Ontario

Legislation

The Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000 (PSECE), regulates the granting of degrees in Ontario. It gives the minister authority to grant consent to private and out-of-province public institutions to grant degrees or operate as universities in Ontario, and allows the minister to suspend, revoke, or change conditions of consent. Colleges of applied arts and technology are also able to apply for consent to offer baccalaureate degrees in applied areas of study.

The act also establishes an advisory quality-review body, the Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board. The minister must refer to the board all new submissions from private institutions that propose to offer programs in Ontario leading to a degree. The act also specifies that the board will provide the minister with advice on the academic rigour and, for private applicants, institutional soundness, of new degree proposals put forward by private universities and out-of-province institutions. The minister may also refer other matters to the board. The act strengthens enforcement mechanisms and specifies that having a ministerial consent does not entitle the holder to any government funding.

Seventeen privately funded degree-granting institutions have been granted restricted degree-granting authority by the provincial government. Private institutions with the authority to grant degrees under an act of legislature are not subject to the consent process and requirements specified under the PSECE Act and are, therefore, not required to undergo a quality review or to ensure that student protection measures are in place.

External and internal review

The ministry has established ad hoc academic-review panels, composed of experts in the academic field, to assess program quality at privately funded Ontario institutions.

toc / tdm Public Colleges

Legislation

The authority to establish colleges of applied arts and technology is set out in the Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act, 2002. The act identifies each college as a corporation without share capital and with a board of governors under the authority of the Ontario Corporations Act. The board of governors governs each college on behalf of the public. The Ontario Corporations Act governs the operations of the college, except where limited by the Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act, 2002, its regulations, or the Minister's Binding Policy Directives. The board of governors of a college is to govern effectively and is accountable to the citizens of Ontario for the successful achievement of its mandate, in view of the financial support the college receives from the province.

The Postsecondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000, allows colleges of applied arts and technology to apply for ministerial consent to grant baccalaureate degrees in applied areas of study.

Key performance indicators (KPI)

Based on themes of accountability and excellence, the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Project is a collaborative venture between Ontario's 24 colleges of applied arts and technology and the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. It provides students a clear picture of the ability of Ontario's postsecondary institutions to successfully prepare graduates for jobs.

Five KPI areas are being studied: graduate employment; graduate satisfaction; employer satisfaction; student satisfaction; and graduation rate. Results from the first three KPI (graduate employment, graduate satisfaction, and employer satisfaction) are used to determine performance-based funding from the province.

Credit transfer and articulation

While a province-wide process for conducting credit transfer does not exist, Ontario has encouraged colleges and universities in the province to work together to develop collaborative arrangements among institutions. These arrangements include credit-transfer agreements, degree-completion programs, concurrent and consecutive programs, and joint-integrated programming.

Through credit-transfer arrangements, colleges and universities mutually recognize some of the learning achieved by a student in the other sector. Credit-transfer agreements can take the form of formal articulation agreements between institutions, or be on an ad hoc basis. Some or all of the credits achieved by a student in one school may be recognized by another institution. Details of credit-transfer arrangements between Ontario colleges and universities can be found in the Ontario College University Transfer Guide.

The Ontario College University Degree Completion Accord sets out a series of principles for developing degree-completion arrangements between colleges and universities. Through this type of arrangement, colleges and at least one university negotiate an articulation agreement under which graduates of a diploma program will receive full credit toward a university degree for their diploma program. Each agreement requires approval by the relevant government bodies of the institutions.

Through concurrent programs, institutions partner to offer two programs, one leading to a diploma, the other to a degree. Partnering institutions work out their own administrative governance functions.

Another form of credit recognition between institutions occurs through consecutive programming. Under this form of agreement, colleges and universities negotiate an agreement on a block transfer of credit for related programs. The block credit-transfer agreement usually specifies less than full credit for the full diploma program. Admission preference is usually given to graduates of the relevant diploma program.

Through joint-integrated programs, two or more distinct, "free-standing" programs in two or more institutions are integrated into one program. The program is delivered by one or more institutions from each sector. For example, Sheridan College and York University offer a bachelor of design honours degree. Students receive one degree in four years, with courses taught at both institutions.

External and internal review

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities approves programs for ministry funding. These programs must be of high quality and relevant to the needs of both employers and students. All college graduates must have the key vocational skills that will help them find employment in their field of study.

Colleges are responsible for regular reviews of their programs in accordance with internal college policies and procedures. Colleges must ensure that their programs meet the requirements of provincially published standards.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship training and trade-certification systems are established under the Trades Qualifications and Apprenticeship Act, R.S.O. 1990, and the Apprenticeship and Certification Act, 1998. The skilled trades are incredibly diverse. In Ontario, there are over 140 apprenticeable trades, which are divided into four sectors: construction, industrial, motive power, and service. The program standards for apprenticeships and trades qualifications are based on occupational standards developed by Ontario's industries. Standards define the skill and knowledge requirements for successful performance in a trade or occupation.

The Programs Branch of the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities oversees the development and approval of training standards for apprenticeship programs. Apprenticeship is workplace-based training, and includes an in-school training component that supports skills development and mastery on the job. A competency-based approach is used for developing standards. Competency-based training (CBT) is a systematic approach to training that is results-oriented and based on specific, precisely stated competencies.

Inherent throughout the design and development process is meaningful and substantial participation of all stakeholders. Industry involvement is critical to developing standards to ensure that skills training meets industry's present and future needs. Formal approval of standards involves approval by industry and by the ministry.

The director of apprenticeship has responsibility for approving in-school curriculum in the apprenticeship trades developed by industry committees. These are provided to training delivery agents (TDAs), which are mostly, but not exclusively, Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology. The TDAs deliver the prescribed training in accordance with the direction of industry committees.

The quality of the in-school portion of apprenticeship training is monitored through student satisfaction surveys, graduate employment rates, and success rates in the examination for the Certificate of Qualification.

The Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal Program in cooperation with the federal government to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Trades Qualification bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition in most jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

Other organizations related to quality assurance in colleges and apprenticeships

Colleges Ontario publishes key performance indicators (KPI) results on graduate employment rates, graduate satisfaction, employer satisfaction, and student satisfaction.

The Ontario College Quality Assurance Service (OCQAS) provides effective and efficient mechanisms that ensure specific program quality and consistency standards are met by the colleges of applied arts and technology (CAAT) in Ontario. The OCQAS operates within the structure of Colleges Ontario and is responsible to a separate management board. The Program Quality Assurance Process Audit (PQAPA) was developed and implemented as a component of a self-regulatory mechanism for colleges.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in the accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Private career colleges

A wide range of training programs exists to help Ontarians prepare for the job market or enter the professions. The majority of programs focus on courses that will prepare students for clearly defined occupations.

Legislation

Private career colleges are privately owned organizations. Some operate for a profit as a business. Others are non-profit organizations. Private career colleges must be registered and have their programs approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities under the Private Career Colleges Act, 2005. This act ensures that private career colleges meet certain standards for the programs that they offer, as well as for their advertising, refund policies, and instructor qualifications.

It is important to note that the protection provided by the Private Career Colleges Act does not apply to unregistered colleges or unapproved programs. It is also important to be aware that there are a number of private organizations offering education or training programs that are not regulated by the province. These include language-training programs, programs less than 40 hours in length, programs that cost less than $1,000, and professional-development and single-skill training programs.

Enrolment in a registered private career college requires the student and the private career college to sign a written enrolment contract that meets the requirements of the Private Career Colleges Act. The college is responsible for providing the educational services outlined in the contract. This contract must be signed by both the student and the college's owner or representative. Both parties to the contract should retain a copy. Students have a two-day "cooling off" period after signing the contract to decide if they really want to pursue the program. If a student changes his or her mind and informs the college in writing before the end of the two-day period, he or she is entitled to a full refund of all fees paid, including any application fee.

Students enrolled in programs at eligible registered private career colleges may apply for student assistance.

Key performance indicators

The Ontario government requires all postsecondary institutions participating in the Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP) to provide students with accurate information on student loan default rates, graduation rates, and graduate employment rates. This type of information will enable students and parents to make informed decisions about which program to choose or which institution to attend.

The collection of key performance indicator (KPI) data has provided private career colleges with pertinent information to evaluate the quality of their programs and to make adjustments where necessary to ensure that the needs of students and employers are met.

It should be emphasized that not all private career colleges are approved for student loans.

External and internal review

All programs offered by registered private career colleges must be approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. Program approval requires the submission of detailed descriptions of program performance objectives, curricula, entrance requirements, labour-market needs, and physical facilities and equipment, accompanied by assessments by third-party experts.

Information about internal review processes may be available from individual private career colleges.

Non-vocational programs offered by private career colleges are not subject to ministry requirements or review (e.g., language programs, programs less than 40 hours in length, programs costing less than $1,000, professional-development programs, hobby courses). Further information about Ontario's private career colleges can be found on the Internet.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Most provincial legislation can be directly accessed on the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

College Compensation and Appointments Council
2 Carlton Street
11th Floor, Suite 1102
Toronto, Ontario M3B 1J3 Canada
Tel.: 416-325-2914
Fax: 416-325-2917
Web: http://www.thecouncil.on.ca/
Colleges Ontario
655 Bay Street
Suite 1010
Toronto, Ontario M5G 2K4 Canada
Tel.: 416-596-0744
Fax: 416-596-2364
Web: http://www.collegesontario.org

Council of Ontario Universities
180 Dundas Street West
Suite 1100
Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 Canada
Tel.: 416-979-2165
Fax: 416-979-8635
Web: http://www.cou.on.ca/
Ministry of Education and Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
Correspondence and Public Inquiries Unit
900 Bay Street
Toronto, Ontario M7A 1L2 Canada
Tel.: 416-325-2929/1-800-387-5514
Fax: 416-325-6348
Web: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/
Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP)
P.O. Box 4500
Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 6G9 Canada
Tel.: 807-343-7260
Fax: 807-343-7278
Web: http://osap.gov.on.ca/
Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
Private Career College Compliance Unit
9th Floor, Mowat Block
900 Bay Street
Toronto, Ontario M7A 1L2 Canada
Tel.: 416-314-0500/1-866-330-3395
Fax: 416-314-0499
Ontario Association of Career Colleges
274 Colborne Street East, Upper Level
P.O. Box 340
Brantford, Ontario N3T 5N3 Canada
Tel.: 519-752-2124
Fax: 519-752-3649
Web: http://www.oacc.on.ca
Ontario College Application Service
370 Speedvale Avenue West
P.O. Box 810
Guelph, Ontario N1H 6M4 Canada
Tel.: 519-763-4725/1-888-892-2228
Fax: 519-763-4866
Web: http://www.ontariocolleges.ca
Ontario Council for University Lifelong Learning
c/o Centre for Teaching, Learning and Educational Technologies
Brock University
St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 4A1 Canada
Web: http://www.ocull.ca
Ontario Council on Graduate Studies
180 Dundas Street West
Suite 1100, 11th Floor
Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 Canada
Tel.: 416-979-2165, ext. 232
Fax: 416-595-7392
Web: http://cou.on.ca/ocgs-1
Ontario Universities' Application Centre
170 Research Lane
Guelph, Ontario N1G 5E2 Canada
Tel.: 519-823-1940
Fax: 519-823-5232
Web: http://www.ouac.on.ca/

List of recognized degree-granting and non-degree-granting postsecondary institutions in Ontario

Revision: April 23, 2009

Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Prince Edward Island

The postsecondary education system in Prince Edward Island is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in Prince Edward Island's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other mechanisms

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

The University Act [PDF] establishes Prince Edward Island's only university and protects the university's credentials by stating that no organization other than the University of Prince Edward Island may use the term "university." The statute outlines the university's authority to govern itself through the operations of a board of governors and a senate. These bodies have the authority to determine all matters relating to programs and qualifications of employees, as well as all other matters deemed to be in the interest of the institution. No explicit reference is made to mechanisms for or accountabilities pertaining to quality assurance of educational programming. Program quality responsibilities are implied through the powers and duties assigned to institutions' internal governing bodies.

The Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Act [PDF] establishes the Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC) and applies to eighteen postsecondary institutions, which include all publicly funded universities offering university degree programs and two specialized applied arts and technology postsecondary institutions in the Maritime region. The act provides the commission with the responsibility of (a) reviewing the academic programs prior to implementation and (b) monitoring the institutional quality assurance policies and procedures. The commission is an agency of the Council of Atlantic Premiers, and it provides advice to ministers responsible for postsecondary education in the Maritimes.

Affiliation

The University of Prince Edward Island has no formal affiliations with colleges or other universities. It should be noted, however, that the Atlantic Veterinary College is housed within the University of Prince Edward Island. The AVC has professed and demonstrated strengths in aquaculture and fish health, biomedical or comparative medical research, and population medicine.

Credit transfer and articulation

Prince Edward Island has no systematic province-wide process for conducting university credit transfers. The flexibility and details of credit transfer procedures vary by institution. Credit transfer requests from one university program to another as well as to and from community college programs are reviewed at the program level by faculty, senior program staff, and informal committees. Reviews are conducted on a course-by-course basis and involve negotiations concerning such factors as the content, level, evaluation component, and instructor qualifications for each course.

A small number of articulation agreements for joint programs and credit exist between the University of Prince Edward Island and Holland College, the province's only community college. The quality of these programs is protected through the articulation agreements and the program review process at each institution.

External and internal review

The quality of the University of Prince Edward Island's programs is addressed in three ways. First, programs are evaluated by the university's own process of self-study and review conducted in accordance with internal policies and procedures. Second, the Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC) reviews all new program proposals and all significant changes to existing programs. The commission focuses on continuous quality improvement of programs and teaching. The overall objective of program reviews is to ascertain the suitability of the program given its objectives, structure, institutional appropriateness, resources, stated student outcomes, and their relevance. Detailed program proposal guidelines are provided to institutions.

The third quality assurance activity is the MPHEC's monitoring of quality assessment procedures used by institutions. This is especially important given that the cornerstone of quality assurance is self-assessment by the institutions. The specific objective of the MPHEC monitoring function is to ascertain that the procedures used by institutions to assess the quality of existing programs are performing adequately. The process is formative; institutional policies and practices are reviewed with a view to providing assistance and advice to institutions.

The process pays particular attention to each institution's mission and values. In both processes outlined above, MPHEC's quality assurance procedures start with internal reviews by the universities. For details on these procedures, contact the individual institutions. Full details on quality assurance procedures used by the Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission are available on the Internet.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the universities and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

The University of Prince Edward Island is a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). Although the association does not perform formal quality assurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions, the range of program offerings, the breadth and depth of programs, the nature of members' relationship with parent institutions, the size of enrolment, institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry, and research, and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Colleges

Legislation

The Holland College Act [PDF] establishes the only public community college in Prince Edward Island. Under the act, the college is responsible for providing a broad range of educational opportunity, particularly in the fields of applied arts and technology, vocational training, and adult education.

The board of governors of the college is responsible for the government, conduct, management, and control of the institution including educational policies and activities that relate to quality assurance in the following areas:

  • establishing courses of study
  • standards of admission
  • qualifications for diplomas
  • organizing examinations and examiners
  • creating academic boards and committees
  • recruiting all employees including the president

The board of governors is accountable to report annually to the minister of education. The minister tables the board's report with the Legislature.

Affiliation

Holland College has created partnerships and centres of excellence to enable it to focus on key resource industries and to customize training to industry needs. These partnerships provide graduates with the best employment opportunities possible. They are the Tourism and Culinary Centre, the Atlantic Police Academy, and the P.E.I. Institute of Adult and Community Education Incorporated. Holland College also has an affiliation with seven postsecondary institutions in China. Training is provided on site and by distance education, and credentials are issued to graduates by Holland College.

Credit transfer and articulation

In July 2000 the colleges of the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) signed a memorandum of understanding to "maximize the recognition and transfer of learning acquired through formal education, workplace training, and work and life experience." In accordance with this memorandum, member colleges have agreed to transfer credits for all courses to appropriate programs delivered by other members.

Program and administrative staff consider credit transfers between Holland College and other Canadian community colleges and universities on a course-by-course basis. Reviews include course content, student evaluation methods, and instructor qualifications.

External and internal review

New programs are developed internally by college program and curriculum development staff and external representatives from industry using business plans approved by the board of governors. Initial program offerings are conducted on a pilot basis and reviewed with input from students. Existing programs are also reviewed in accordance with internal policies and procedures for updating and to ensure relevance to the demands of the marketplace. The college is implementing a continuous improvement process to ensure ongoing quality. Quality is also assessed through annual graduate surveys, full-time student surveys at the end of every course, and new student surveys six weeks following enrolment. Reports that include demonstrated response action and follow-up are prepared for review by the board of governors. Holland College is also ISO 9000 registered. Through this process, every program and student service area is audited once a year, including a review of student progress and program delivery. The results have an indirect impact on overall program quality.

There are no departmental review procedures or other external organizations to which the college is accountable for new or ongoing program quality.

Professional accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Collège Acadie Î.-P.-É.

The first opportunity for francophone Islanders to receive postsecondary education in French within the province occurred in 1992, with the establishment of the Société éducative de l'Île-du-Prince-Édouard. In 1994, the Société éducative established the Centre provincial de formation pour adultes in Wellington. They offer general education and literacy programs as well as various retraining courses and French-as-a-second-language courses. A master's in education program is currently being offered to Island teachers of French by the Université de Moncton, New Brunswick.

The Société éducative is a full-fledged member of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and of the Réseau des Cégeps et des Collèges Francophones du Canada.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

Apprenticeship training in Prince Edward Island combines workplace training and educational class instruction. The Apprenticeship and Trades Qualifications Act [PDF] establishes the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning as the authority responsible for apprenticeship matters. The act requires that the government appoint a provincial apprenticeship board. The board's main function is to advise the Minister of Innovation and Advanced Learning on labour market matters that relate to training and the certification of people in designated trades and occupations. In advising the minister, the board draws upon the expertise of various committees.

The legislation requires each trade to have a trade advisory committee (TAC) as a subcommittee of the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. The TACs are responsible for recommending the standards for training and certification, identifying the training needs and content for their trade, and reviewing educational class instruction curriculum.

External and internal review

The Provincial Apprenticeship Board is given responsibility, in consultation with the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning, to approve plans of training in each designated trade. Multi-stakeholder trade advisory committees are established to develop specific plans of training. These are provided to Holland College (the sole deliverer of the in-school technical instruction in apprenticeship in the province) for curriculum development. The college develops curriculum for in-school instruction based on national occupational standards established for each trade. The committee reviews the curriculum, making the necessary changes and reports to the provincial board. The board instructs the college to make the identified changes and deliver the training. Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning staff members work closely with college apprenticeship staff and address potential issues as they arise.

The work of the Provincial Apprenticeship Board and its trade advisory committees is supported and monitored by the manager of apprenticeship in the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning. The department reviews apprenticeship training programs for quality and relevance on a cyclical basis, with a goal of once every two years for each program.

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating of national trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) to standardize trade skill requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate of Trades Qualifications bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition in most jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationally recognized standards.

toc / tdm Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

Holland College is a member of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC). ACCC does not perform quality assurance functions, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

The Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) was established in 1998 as an informal consortium of departments and institutions to enhance cooperation across the community colleges in the four Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The activities, initiatives, and projects of the consortium are designed to reflect the values and principles agreed to by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) in A Report on Public Expectations of Postsecondary Education in Canada (February 1999). The key areas of performance expectations demonstrating these values and principles include quality and accountability among others. The primary activities of the consortium include sharing information, issues, and solutions and generally promoting consistency, cooperation, joint initiatives, and transferability across institutions. The impact of the consortium on program quality is indirect.

The Atlantic Apprenticeship Council (AAC) was established to share common concerns and economical opportunities for cooperation among apprenticeship programs in the four Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island). A priority of the council is to adopt common standards for plans of training in all trade apprenticeship programs, including standards for curriculum development. Apprenticeship training programs in the Atlantic provinces ensure consistent standards of achievement by using the same interprovincial standards for Certificate of Qualification and Red Seal examinations.

toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

Maritime Christian College is a respected private institution registered under The Companies Act [PDF] for the delivery of theology programs. It does not receive public funding. The college is governed by a board of directors and is not accountable to the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning or other external organization for program quality assurance. It is authorized to grant the following specified programs only: Bachelors of Arts (Bible); Bachelor of Arts (General Studies); Bachelor of Arts (Child and Youth) and Bachelor of Bible and Ministry.

Privately operated schools that offer postsecondary vocational training, that is, leading to the practice of an occupation, are regulated under the Private Training Schools Act [PDF] and regulations. The law requires that such schools be registered by the province. To become registered, a school must meet the requirements set out in the law regarding curriculum, learning resources, equipment, instructors, and a number of administrative and management practices (student contract, fees, advertising, refunds, etc.). The school must also post a significant security bond to assure fulfilment of its obligations to students and renew its registration annually. The law provides for enforcement of standards by the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning's administrator of private training schools - by means of assessing and approving any proposed training program, review by expert consultants, inspection, and disciplinary action, which may include calling for forfeiture of the security, imposing conditions on, suspending, or cancelling the registration.

External and Internal Review

Because of the competitive business nature of private training schools, a number of the institutions review their operations internally - by surveying their students' satisfaction, tracking the employment of graduates, and updating their programs from time to time.

As regulator, the administrator of private training schools strives to ensure adequate quality by means of

  • assessing and approving any proposed training program, to determine whether it is "industry standard"; and, if there is any doubt about the standard, arranging review by expert consultants
  • licensing instructors, which involves assessment of their relevant training and work experience
  • making inspection visits and student satisfaction surveys

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Provincial legislation can be directly accessed on the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning
2nd floor, Atlantic Technology Centre
90 University Ave.
PO Box 2000
Charlottetown, PE C1A 7N8
Canada
Telephone: 902-368-4670
Fax: 902-368-6144
Web site: http://www.gov.pe.ca/ial/

Revision: 2010-12-03


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Quebec

The postsecondary education system in Quebec is described in CICIC's Postsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system includes two major categories of postsecondary program delivery belonging to two education sectors:

University programs are offered solely in universities, institutes, and schools recognized under the Loi sur les établissements d'enseignement universitaire (Act Respecting Educational Institutions at the University Level). By way of illustration, institutions can be recognized under the various provisions of the act:

  • As an institution listed in section 1, subsections 1 to 8 of the Act Respecting Educational Institutions at the University Level
  • As a constituent institution of the Université du Québec established by letters patent issued in accordance with the Loi sur l'Université du Québec (Act Respecting the Université du Québec)
  • As a program offered by institutions recognized under an order-in-council under subsection 13 of section 1 of the Act Respecting Educational Institutions at the University Level
  • As an institution recognized in accordance with an act adopted in accordance with subsection 2 of section 2 of the Act Respecting Educational Institutions at the University Level

College education is offered in four types of institutions:

Quality Assurance Mechanisms

Quality assurance mechanisms in Quebec's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

 

That policy states: "The configuration of Quebec's university system is a historical legacy. Its development was not guided by any legislation nor master plan...."

Although no specific piece of legislation defines the university system, each university was created by royal charter or by special act.

For example, the Université du Québec, founded in 1968, was created under a specific act that provides for the issuance of letters patent by the government.

The Loi sur les établissements d'enseignement de niveau universitaire (Act Respecting Educational Institutions at the University Level), in which Quebec's university institutions are listed, provides that the term "university" is reserved for the ends set out in the act.

Program quality control is performed via the Conférence des recteurs et des principaux des universités du Québec (CREPUQ), a voluntary university coordinating body. Each university has created an assessment policy for existing programs. Assessment practices are reviewed by CREPUQ's Commission de la vérification de l'évaluation des programmes. New programs leading to a university degree (bachelor's, master's, or doctoral) are submitted to CREPUQ's Commission de l'évaluation des projets de programmes (CEP), which renders an opinion as to academic quality.

The Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport reviews the opinion. Decisions on funding enrolment in new programs are taken based on the provisions in the document entitled Procédure liée à l'examen d'opportunité des projets de programmes conduisant à un grade présentés au ministre de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport aux fins de financement.

These complementary mechanisms are designed to assess each institution's proposed programs and to ensure the relevance of university program offerings.

University financing is largely provided by the Quebec government. In return, the government expects that institutions will use these funds efficiently and account for their management. University funding policy is designed on the one hand to guarantee the quality of training and research, taking into account the specific situation of each institution, and on the other hand to support the goals set out in the Politique québécoise à l'égard des universités. The Politique québécoise de financement des universités is reflected in budget rules set each year by the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport.

Affiliation

The École Polytechnique (created in 1873) and the École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Montréal (created in 1907) are degree-granting institutions that were created by special acts prior to the creation of the Université de Montréal and that decided in 1920 to conclude an affiliation agreement with the latter institution. This affiliation agreement governs and affirms the status of degrees granted by these institutions as being also degrees granted by the Université de Montréal. The three institutions have separate boards of governors. However, some institutions (either in the same sector or in different sectors) have entered into agreements covering specific programs. Such agreements are governed by protocols that the institutions concerned are responsible for applying. Thus quality control measures are the same as for new programs. Students in those programs have library privileges in all institutions involved, under a CREPUQ-governed agreement.

Such programs exist at all levels and include the following models:

  • joint programs (involving resources from several institutions)
  • extension programs (under the responsibility of the originating institution)
  • network or associated programs (involving two faculties within an institution, or several different institutions)
Credit Transfer and Program Equivalencies

To facilitate mobility for students wishing to change institutions, prior studies may be recognized under a credit transfer mechanism between recognized universities, up to a maximum of two thirds of credits for a specific program, according to policies that vary between institutions. Since programs vary between institutions as well, a number of mechanisms such as exemption or course substitution are also provided. Such mechanisms are under the responsibility of the host institution and the program committee concerned. Transfers are not automatic and require enrolment in the host institution to become valid.

A mechanism is also available to recognize prior learning in order to grant equivalency for educational or employment experience. Here again, such recognition is not automatic and requires in-depth study of a candidate's file by the host institution.

The cégep-to-university transition can occur through program equivalencies governed by a memorandum of understanding. So-called "DEC-BAC" (college diploma to bachelor's degree) programs are governed by specific agreements between institutions and allow students to obtain a number of university credits for their college studies. These agreements apply only to technical courses, since general-stream courses are prerequisites to university admission in the first place. There is no provincial guide covering equivalencies or transfers, but Quebec university registrars use specific resources, in particular to determine possible equivalencies. One such resource is the Guide des niveaux de formation pour l'admission générale des candidats non québécois published under the auspices of the Conférence des recteurs et principaux des universités du Québec.

Responsibility for recognizing training from another country lies with Quebec institutions (schools, colleges, and universities). As well, the Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles provides academic equivalency assessments, mostly for labour market purposes, but these can also be used by educational institutions.

External and Internal Review

Each institution is required to set a periodic program assessment policy, using its own professors and lecturers as well as students and graduates, employers if appropriate, and external specialists and international experts. These periodic assessment processes are reviewed by CREPUQ's Commission de vérification de l'évaluation des programmes.

Teacher training programs must be approved by the Comité d'agrément des programmes de formation à l'enseignement (CAPFE).

Professional Accreditation

The Règlement sur les diplômes délivrés par les établissements d'enseignement désignés qui donnent droit aux permis et aux certificats de spécialistes des ordres professionnels was adopted under the Code des professions. Professional governing bodies ensure that training is adequate to acquire the professional skills required for the practice of a profession. Professional governing bodies generally create an advisory committee on training to review the quality of training in respect of (a) the objectives of training programs leading to a diploma entitling the holder to a licence or specialist certificate; (b) the aims of other conditions for the issuance of a licence or specialist certificate; and (c) diploma or training equivalency standards set out by regulation by the executive committee of the professional governing body and entitling the applicant to a licence or specialist certificate.

The Code des professions du Québec (Chapter C-26, Revised Statutes of Quebec) provides an overview of Quebec professions and each governing body's procedures. The Office des professions du Québec is responsible for implementing the Code des professions.

Some professional governing bodies (such as the Ordre des ingénieurs du Québec) may be members of an association that includes several governing bodies (such as the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers). Such associations may exercise accreditation functions in respect of university training programs, based on Canadian or international standards. However, such certification practices are distinct from the quality assurance mechanisms described above.

Other Mechanisms

In addition to CREPUQ membership, Quebec universities are also members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC). AUCC has adopted quality assurance principles to which leaders of university institutions subscribe. AUCC imposes membership criteria that address the primary mission of institutions, the range of program offerings, the breadth and depth of programs, the nature of their relationship with parent institutions, the size of enrolment, institutional focus on scholarship, academic inquiry and research, and compliance with the principles of academic freedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host an AUCC visiting committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on a variety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institution is providing education of university standard.

Many provincial and pan-Canadian professional associations of administrators and universities are also concerned with promoting quality. Student associations are active as well in ensuring that both programs and conditions of learning are at the highest possible level.

In addition to the l'Office des professions du Québec, the Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Colleges

This education sector, created in 1967, is unique in the world. It provides both a transition between secondary school and university, through two-year pre-university programs, and three-year labour-market-focused technical training programs. College programs lead to the Diplôme d'Études Collégiales (DEC), granted by the minister, and Attestations d'Études Collégiales (AEC), granted by institutions. Regardless of the DEC program they choose, students undergo a core general-stream program.

The college sector includes 48 public cégeps, 24 subsidized private institutions, 3 public institutions governed by an authority other than the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport, and 26 private licensed institutions. A complete list can be found on the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport Web site.

The Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport is responsible for developing pre-university and technical training based on three principles:

  • accessible training adapted to needs
  • harmonized programs between the secondary and college levels
  • sustained cooperation with community partners

The ministry is thus responsible for quality control and evaluation, including

  • defining orientations and strategies
  • identifying and prioritizing program development or review needs
  • assuming responsibility for program evaluation

Programs are delivered by private colleges, cégeps, and other institutions are governed by the quality control rules described below.

Legislation

The public college network is governed by the General and Vocational Colleges Act (Loi sur les collèges d'enseignement général et professionnel). Private colleges are governed by the Act Respecting Private Education (Loi sur l'enseignement privé). The government mandates the minister responsible for the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport to approve all programs and authorize their delivery. Private institutions wishing to offer a DEC or AEC program must also receive a licence from the minister. Institutions are assessed under the Act Respecting the Commission d'Évaluation de l'Enseignement Collégial (Loi sur la Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial).

Affiliation

Quebec's colleges and cégeps have no formal affiliations with universities or other colleges or institutes.

Credit Transfer and Program Harmonization

Since college programs are authorized by the minister, transfers between colleges are generally smooth. Such transfers are under the responsibility of individual colleges. Cégep admission applications are centralized and processed in regional centres in Montreal, Quebec City, and Saguenay-Lac St-Jean, to ensure uniform province-wide processing. Harmonization of vocational and technical training can fall under individual agreements between colleges and school boards. These are used to harmonize programs and prevent duplication of curriculum in the vocational and technical sector in order to smooth the transition between secondary and college programs.

More and more equivalencies are set between college and university programs, leading to "DEC-BAC" bridges (college diploma to bachelor's degree) in technical fields (see above under Universities - Credit Transfers and Program Equivalencies. Most universities have also made arrangements to admit students with a technical DEC.

External and Internal Review

Quality assessment for programs offered by colleges is provided by the Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial, which assesses the following in each institution:

  • institutional policies on the evaluation of learning achievement and their implementation;
  • institutional policies on the evaluation of programs of studies, and their implementation;
  • the implementation of curricula set by the minister responsible for the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport, taking into account the objectives and standards assigned to them;
  • the objectives, standards and implementation of the programs of studies established by the institution, taking into account the needs these programs are designed to meet.

In addition, for general and vocational colleges (cégeps) and subsidized private educational institutions, the Commission also evaluates:

  • the activities related to their educational mission as regards administrative and academic planning and management as well as instruction and support services; for cégeps, such evaluation includes an evaluation of their strategic plan.

Quality control is provided systematically both for pre-university and for technical programs under the Act Respecting the Commission d'Évaluation de l'Enseignement Collégial (Loi sur la Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial) (C-32.2). It is important to note that this process is superimposed on each institution's internal policies.

Other Mechanisms

The Fédération des cégeps is a voluntary grouping of public colleges that plays a key role in ensuring representativeness and cohesiveness in the college network. That organization, together with others including the Conseil du Patronat du Québec, helped set up the Centre de liaison entreprises-éducation, mandated to raise the profile of vocational and technical education.

Cégeps and privates colleges are generally members of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), whose aims are similar to those of the Fédération des cégeps, but at the pan-Canadian level. In addition, ACCC is very active on the international scene and manages joint college-level international funding programs. However, ACCC largely focuses on the technical areas, while the Fédération des cégeps is also concerned with pre-university programs. ACCC does not perform formal quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

Professional accreditation

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

Some professional governing bodies under the Professional Code (Code des professions) (C-26) are also concerned with the quality of college-level technical training for certain professions. The Conseil interprofessionnel du Québec, under its public protection mandate, is also involved in this area.

toc / tdm Private Subsidized or Non-Subsidized Colleges and Institutes

Legislation

Private colleges are governed by the Act Respecting Private Education (Loi sur l'enseignement privé). Institutions are assessed under the Act Respecting the Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial (Loi sur la Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial).

Private institutions are required to be licensed by the minister and are subject to the same quality control mechanisms as cégeps in terms of obtaining authority to deliver programs leading to a DEC or an AEC.

Private colleges are required to make their status clear in any advertising, especially by specifying those educational services they are authorized to offer the programs for technical specialties set out in their licence. In addition, private colleges are prohibited from implying that their courses of study guarantee a job, from advertising courses in a way that implies that a job offer is involved, or from mentioning any service or program not included in their licence.

Private subsidized institutions deliver pre-university and technical training. This training is governed by the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. They are represented by the Association des collèges privés du Québec.

Programs delivered by private colleges are also governed by the quality control requirements set out above.

toc / tdm Public Institutions Regulated by an Authority Other Than the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport

Four institutions are regulated by an authority other than the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport:

  • the Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique, under the authority of the Ministère de la Culture et des Communications, with locations in seven cities in Quebec;
  • the Institut de tourisme et d'hôtellerie du Québec (ITHQ) under the authority of the Quebec Government, which names a board of governors;
  • the Institut de technologie agroalimentaire, under the authority of the Ministère de l'Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l'Alimentation, with locations in two cities in Quebec.
  • MacDonald College, under the authority of McGill University
Legislation

These public institutions are regulated by specific legislation under an authority other than the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. However, the minister responsible for the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport approves programs leading to a DEC and authorizes these institutions to deliver them. Like all other public institutions, they are assessed under the Act Respecting the Commission d'Évaluation de l'Enseignement Collégial (Loi sur la Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial).

Affiliation

These institutions have no formal affiliations with universities or other colleges or institutes.

Credit Transfer and Program Equivalencies

Because the programs in these institutions are authorized by the minister, transfers between colleges are generally smooth. Such transfers are under the responsibility of individual colleges.

External and Internal Review

Programs delivered by these institutions are also governed by quality assurance requirements set out above.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship and Qualification Programs

In Quebec, apprenticeship and qualification programs are generally governed by school boards and are part of secondary-level vocational training.

However, when required to ensure continuity between secondary-level vocational programs and college-level technical programs, the development of technical curricula takes into account the provisions of various applicable acts, including the Act Respecting Workforce Vocational Training and Qualification (Loi sur la formation et la qualification professionnelle de la main-d'oeuvre).

Legislation

The Act Respecting Workforce Vocational Training and Qualification establishes vocational training and qualification programs. These programs may in particular determine

  • the activities that are part of a trade or vocation
  • the conditions for admission to apprenticeship and examinations and for obtaining a certificate of qualification
  • the subjects of the examinations and the certificates of qualification awarded upon completion of the programs
  • the fees to be paid for taking examinations and for issuing or renewing a certificate of qualification and an apprentice booklet
  • any other related or suppletory provision deemed necessary for the efficient implementation of these programs

The government may make regulations consistent with this act to ensure the efficient carrying out thereof. It may in particular

  • determine the qualification required to carry on trades or vocations
  • render obligatory apprenticeship and the certificate of qualification for the carrying on of a given trade or vocation
  • determine the conditions for admission to apprenticeship and to the examinations for qualification, for obtaining and renewing certificates of qualification, and generally for admission to the carrying on of trades or vocations
  • determine the number of persons who may be admitted to apprenticeship in a trade or vocation in relation to the number of qualified employees in an enterprise or in a given territory and determine, after consultation with the parties concerned, the rate of the minimum wage of an apprentice in relation to the wages of a qualified employee
  • determine the subjects of the examinations for qualification and the certificates to which they lead
  • fix the fees to be paid for taking examinations and for issuing or renewing a certificate of qualification
  • generally, adopt any other related or suppletory provision for the efficient carrying out of this act and for the proper functioning of the bodies which it establishes, including any exceptional provision to facilitate the implementation of intergovernmental agreements in respect of workforce mobility or the recognition of the qualifications, skills, or work experience in trades or vocations
External and Internal Review

The mandate of the Direction de l'Apprentissage (Apprenticeship Branch) is to promote the development and recognition of workforce skills to respond to labour market needs.

The branch manages the qualification plan, the apprenticeship program, and regulated professional qualifications; administers the Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program to promote employment mobility; devises notebooks and guides for the introduction of new occupations within the qualification plan; devises and administers qualification exams for apprentices in regulated occupations; and provides the support and consulting expertise pertaining to management of optional and regulated plans to all the regions.

Professional Accreditation

Accreditation of apprenticeship and qualification programs is governed by the applicable acts.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Universities

Acts governing university teaching and research administered by the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport:

Colleges

The following acts governing college education are administered by the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport:

College education administered by a ministry other than the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport
Apprenticeship and Qualification

Provincial legislation can be accessed through the Internet at http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport
Secteur de l'enseignement supérieur
1035, rue de la Chevrotière, 15e étage
Québec (Québec) G1R 5A5
Tel.: 418 643-3810
Fax: 418 644-3090
Web site: http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport
Direction générale des affaires universitaires et collégiales
1035, rue de La Chevrotière, 18e étage
Québec (Québec) G1R 5A5
Tel.: 418 643-6671
Fax: 418 646-7447
Web site: http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/Ens-sup

 
Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport
Direction générale de l'aide financière aux étudiants
Direction de l'attribution de l'aide financière
1035, rue de la Chevrotière, 21e étage
Québec (Québec) G1R 5A5
Tel.: 418 643-5313
Fax: 418 528-0779
Web site: http://www.afe.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation
710, place D'Youville, 3e étage
Québec (Québec) G1R 4Y4
Tel.: 418 691-5950
Toll Free: 1 866 680-1884
Fax: 418 644-0118
Web site: http://www.mdeie.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Conférence des recteurs et des principaux des universités du Québec
300, rue Pariseau, bureau 1200, 12e étage
Case postale 952, succursale du Parc
Montréal (Québec) H2W 2N1
Tel.: 514 288-8524
Fax: 514 288-0554
Web site: http://www.crepuq.qc.ca/

 
Fédération des cégeps
500, boulevard Crémazie Est
Montréal (Québec) H2P 1E7
Tel.: 514 381-8631
Fax: 514 381-2263
Web site: http://www.fedecegeps.qc.ca/

 
Association des collèges privés du Québec
1940, boulevard henri-Bourassa Est
Montréal (Québec) H2B 1S2
Tel.: 514 381-8891
Fax: 514 381-4086
Web site: http://www.acpq.net/

Other government agencies with responsibilities in the area of postsecondary education

Conseil supérieur de l'éducation (organisme consultatif)
1200, route de l'Église, porte 3.20
Sainte-Foy (Québec) G1V 4Z4
Tel.: 418 643-8022
Fax: 418 644-2530
Web site: http://www.cse.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial
800, place D'Youville, 18e étage
Québec (Québec) G1R 5P4
Tel.: 418 643-9938
Fax: 418 643-9019
Web site: http://www.ceec.gouv.qc.ca

 
Le Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies (research grants)
140, Grande-Allée Est, bureau 450
Québec (Québec) G1R 5M8
Tel.: 418 643-8560
Fax: 418 643-1451
SiteWeb: http://www.fqrnt.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Fonds de recherche sur la société et la culture (research grants)
Quebec City
140, Grande-Allée Est, bureau 470
Québec (Québec) G1R 5M8
Tel.: 418 643-7582
Fax: 418 644-5248
E-mail: fqrsc@fqrsc.gouv.qc.ca
Web site: http://www.fqrsc.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Montreal
500, boul. René-Lévesque Ouest, 17e étage, bureau 100
Montréal (Québec) H2Z 1W7
Tel.: 514 873-1298
Fax: 514 873-9382
E-mail: fqrsc@fqrsc.gouv.qc.ca
Web site: http://www.fqrsc.gouv.qc.ca/

 
Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec (research grants)
500, rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Bureau 800
Montréal (Québec) Canada
H3A 3C6
Tel.: 514 873-2114
Fax: 514 873-8768
Web site: http://www.frsq.gouv.qc.ca

Revision: 2010-11-01


Quality Assurance for Postsecondary Institutions in Saskatchewan

The postsecondary education system in Saskatchewan is described in CICIC'sPostsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into four categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in Saskatchewan's postsecondary education system vary by type of institution and program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Universities

Legislation

Individual statutes establishSaskatchewan's two degree-granting universities. The authority of eachinstitution to govern itself is outlined in these statutes, their regulations,and bylaws.

On October 29, 2012, The DegreeAuthorization Act wasproclaimed. The University of Regina and the University of Saskatchewan areexempt from the legislation.  Thelegislation enables institutions other than the University of Regina and theUniversity of Saskatchewan to be authorized to provide degree programs andgrant degrees, provided they meet the requirements of a quality assurancereview process.  The legislation alsorestricts the use of the terms “university” and “varsity”.

On October 29, 2013, The DegreeAuthorization Regulations cameinto force and the SaskatchewanHigher Education Quality Assurance Board (SHEQAB) was appointed. The SHEQAB oversees the provincial qualityassurance review process and provides its recommendations to government as towhether or not proposed new degree programs should be authorized.

Affiliation

The Universityof Saskatchewan has onefederated college and affiliation agreements with seven other colleges, six ofwhich are theological institutions and one that is focused on Métis educationand cultural studies. The Universityof Regina has threefederated colleges and one affiliate. Federated colleges are administrativelyand financially autonomous, but academically integrated with their hostuniversity. In some programs, colleges federated with the universities offercourses in the same programs and at the same time as those offered at theuniversities. Degrees are granted by the host university.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Saskatchewan does not have a systematic,province-wide process for conducting credit transfer agreements to and frompost-secondary institutions. The flexibility and details of credit transferpolicy and procedures vary by institution. However, many credit transfersbetween Saskatchewan's two universities can be obtained, and agreements betweenuniversities and other institutions are increasing. Some program articulationagreements are already in place between the universities and SaskatchewanInstitute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) as well as SaskatchewanIndian Institute of Technologies (SIIT), in areas such as business, nursing,integrated resource management, chemical technology, computer science, andadministration.

External and Internal Review

The Saskatchewan government does not playa role in the approval of university programs like a number of other provinces.All universities conduct program reviews including site visits with externalrepresentation. Aspects of faculty qualifications and the curriculum areevaluated. Quality of programs is also monitored through student satisfactionrates.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professionshave associations that conduct accreditation reviews of university programspertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditation teams fromthe professions review reports provided by the universities and may conducton-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established bythe professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Universities

All universities in Saskatchewan aremembers of the Associationof Universities and Colleges of Canada(AUCC). Although the association does not perform formal qualityassurance functions, it does maintain membership criteria thataddress the primary mission of institutions; the range of program offerings;the breadth and depth of programs; the nature of members' relationship withparent institutions; the size of enrolment; institutional focus on scholarship,academic inquiry, and research; and compliance with the principles of academicfreedom and responsibility. Institutions applying for membership must host anAUCC Visiting Committee that reports to the AUCC Board of Directors on avariety of items and recommends a decision on whether the applying institutionis providing education of university standard.

The Associationof Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) isa national organization composed of professional associations involved inpromoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educationalprograms.

toc / tdm Colleges and Institutes

Legislation

The SaskatchewanInstitute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) is established under the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology Act, 1986, which sets out the framework for its operation andaccountability.


In February 2008, the First Nations University of Canada Act was passed by theFederation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations Legislative Assembly.  FirstNations University of Canada (FNUniv) is academically federated with theUniversity of Regina.  Their mission is to enhance the quality of life andto preserve, protect and interpret the history, language culture and artisticheritage of First Nations.  Through its Board of Governors, FNUniv isunder the jurisdiction of the Indian Government of Saskatchewan, the Federationof Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN).  The FNUniv is a full member of theAssociation of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC).

As a federated college, FNUniv adheres to all University of Regina regulationswith respect to admission, hiring of faculty, and academic program development,yet possesses a unique curriculum with a First Nations' perspective.  FNUniv offers all programs available at the University ofRegina in the Faculties of Arts and Sciences as well as its own programs. 

The Saskatchewan Indian Federated College Act of the 
Legislative Assembly of the Federation of Saskatchewan IndianNations (FSIN)established the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College (SIFC) as an institution that is administratively andfinancially autonomous, but academically integrated with the University of Regina. The SIFC Act (passed by the Federation of Saskatchewan IndianNations Legislative Assembly) specifies the composition and responsibilities ofthe board of governors. In June 2003, the Saskatchewan Indian Federated Collegechanged its name to the First Nations University of Canada.

The SaskatchewanIndian Institute of Technologies (SIIT)was established in 1976 by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN)through the Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies Act. It is aneducational institution of the FSIN, and is governed by a board composed ofFSIN senators, Saskatchewan Tribal Council appointees, and an FSIN executivemember. The institute offers training programs leading to certificates anddiplomas in a variety of trades and technical fields. Many universitiesrecognize the institute's training, and transfer programs are available forstudents who wish to pursue university degrees.

SIIT alsocollaborates with the SaskatchewanInstitute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST), the provincial universities, and other educationalinstitutions to deliver diploma (two-year), certificate (one-year), and tradesprograms. SIIT enhances the curriculum of some of these programs to reflect theunique training needs of SIIT students.

The GabrielDumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research is the educational arm of the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan. Theinstitute is the only wholly Métis owned and controlled education institutionof its kind in Canada. The institute is responsible for the design,development, and delivery of specific educational and cultural programs and services.The institute works cooperatively with a number of educational partners and isaffiliated with the Universityof Saskatchewan and the University of Regina as well as a Federation agreement with the SaskatchewanInstitute of Applied Science and Technology. In all of its relationships with its educational partners, theGabriel Dumont Institute has maintained its independence and distinct Aboriginalidentity. Through its network of community learning centres acrossSaskatchewan, the institute maintains a close contact with the people itserves. The programs and activities of the institute are determined by theidentified needs of the Métis and implemented according to the decisions of itsboard of governors.

Saskatchewan's seven regionalcolleges were created in 1988 under the Regional College Act to provide Adult Basic Education and Skills Training toindividuals in areas of the province where access to education can bedifficult. Lakeland College (Alberta) also provides education and trainingprograms and services to Saskatchewan residents in the Lloydminster area.

Affiliation and Federation

The University of Regina has threefederated colleges, First Nations University of Canada, Campion College, andLuther College, as well as two affiliated colleges, SIAST and the GabrielDumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research.  The University of Saskatchewan has onefederated college, St. Thomas More College, and seven affiliated colleges -- TheCollege of Emmanuel and St. Chad, St. Andrew's College, Lutheran TheologicalSeminary, St. Peter's College, Horizon College and Seminary, Briercrest Collegeand Seminary and the Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and AppliedResearch.

 Colleges federated with the universitiesoften offer courses in the same degree programs and complement those offered atthe universities. Degrees are granted by the universities.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Saskatchewan does not have a systematic,province-wide process for conducting credit transfers to and from universitiesand colleges. The flexibility and details of credit transfer procedures vary byinstitution. However, articulation agreements between universities and SIASTare increasing.

External and Internal Review

New certificate and diploma programs aredeveloped internally by college and institute program and curriculumdevelopment staff with input from program committees composed of externalrepresentatives from industry.

New degree programs must be authorizedpursuant to The Degree Authorization Act.  The degree authorization process includes aquality assurance review, which may involve organizational and program evaluationsconducted by external review teams, depending on the type of quality assurancereview required by the Saskatchewan Higher Education Quality Assurance Board.

 

Theological colleges are accreditedthrough theological accreditation agencies in the United States.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professionshave associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college and instituteprograms pertaining to their professions. In these instances, accreditationteams from the professions review reports provided by the colleges and mayconduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and proceduresestablished by the professions.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

The SaskatchewanApprenticeship and Trade Certification Commission is an industry-led agency responsible for creating a relevant,accessible, and responsive apprenticeship training and certification system tomeet employers' and employees' needs and priorities. It delivers this mandateunder the framework of The Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Act, 1999 [PDF] and The Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Regulations, 2003 and The Apprenticeship Trade and Certification Commission Regulations.

External and Internal Review

In relation to quality assurance, programstandards are established using national occupational standards to set thetraining framework. The commission is responsible for establishing industryoccupational standards, for apprenticeship curriculum and examinationdevelopment, and for training purchases for in-school delivery throughobtaining input from industry representatives (workers, employers) andcommission staff on trade boards. The commission's curriculum and examinationdevelopment boards and trade examining boards update and approve curriculum andrevise examinations.

At the request of the commission, SIASTdelivers most of the technical training for apprentices; however, in some ofthe trades, apprenticeship technical training is provided by the SaskatchewanIndian Institute of Technologies, regional colleges, private vocationalschools, SaskPower, the Saskatchewan Tourism Education Council, andout-of-province colleges. It is the responsibility of program reviewers atindividual institutions to evaluate the quality of apprenticeship in-schooltraining. At the request of the commission, employer and employeesrepresentatives of each designated trade meet annually to discuss issues,concerns, and new directions for technical training.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges, Institutes, and Apprenticeship

Saskatchewan's regional colleges are allmembers of the Associationof Canadian Community Colleges(ACCC). ACCCdoes not perform quality assurance functions with respect to its members, butit does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards byconducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assuranceissues.

The Associationof Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) isa national organization composed of professional associations involved inpromoting good practices in accreditation of educational programs. Informationon the activities of these professions with colleges and universities can beaccessed through the AAAC Web site.

An InterprovincialStandards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial andterritorial apprenticeship training, as well as the regular updating ofnational trades standards in order to reflect the ongoing technological changestaking place in all trades. The Red Seal program was developed by the Canadianprovinces and territories to standardize trade skill requirements and providegreater employment mobility throughout Canada. A provincial Certificate ofTrades Qualifications bearing the Red Seal provides training recognition inmost jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, theRed Seal is an assurance of quality training and certification to nationallyrecognized standards.

toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

Private vocational schools in Saskatchewanoffer employment-related programs for adults and are governed by The Private Vocational Schools Regulation Act, 1995 [PDF] and by The Private Vocational Schools Regulations, 1995.

External and Internal Review

Saskatchewan Advanced Education administersthe requirements of The Private Vocational Schools Regulation Act, 1995 andRegulations. The legislation requires that institutions, programs, andinstructors be registered with the ministry. The ministry does not directlyevaluate private vocational school programs for quality. However, registrationand monitoring of program, curricula, including a review of labour marketresearch to support new programs, has an impact on quality. The Canadian Education and Training Accreditation Commission (CETAC) is a national association that accredits Canadianprivate vocational schools at the institutional level. Accreditation isvoluntary.

Information on internal review processesmay be obtained from individually licensed private vocational schools.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

 

Provincial legislation can be accessedthrough the Internet at http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/


toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Ministry of Advanced Education 
Web site: http://www.aeei.gov.sk.ca/
Universities & Private Vocational Schools Branch
Ministry of Advanced Education
1120 - 2010 12th Ave.
Regina, Saskatchewan S4P 0M3
Tel: 306-787-7381
Fax: 306-798-3379
 
Technical and Trades Branch
1120 - 2010 12th Ave.
Regina, SK S4P 0M3
Tel. 306-787-5922
Fax. 306-787-3159

Revision: 2013-10-16


Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Yukon

The postsecondary education system in Yukon is described in CICIC'sPostsecondary Education Systems in Canada, Provinces and Territories. The system can be divided into three categories of postsecondary program delivery:

Quality assurance mechanisms in Yukon's postsecondary education system vary by type of program. They include

  • legislation (statutes and regulations)
  • affiliation
  • credit transfer and articulation
  • external and internal review
  • professional accreditation
  • other organizations related to quality assurance

toc / tdm Colleges

Legislation

The College Act establishes the only public community college in Yukon. Under the act, Yukon College is responsible for providing educational programs, services, and activities to meet the needs of people in Yukon and provides certificate, diploma, and degree programming. The board of governors of the college is responsible for the government, conduct, and management of the operations of the institution including educational policies and activities that relate to quality assurance, particularly establishing programs of study and student admission standards. The act also establishes campus advisory committees to advise the board of governors on the programs and activities of the community campus, with particular reference to the needs of the community.

The board of governors is accountable to the minister of education. The minister tables the board's report with the Legislature.

Affiliation

Yukon College is not formally affiliated with any particular university.

Credit Transfer and Articulation

Yukon College's credit transfer arrangements are published in the British Columbia Transfer Guide. Yukon College has credit transfer and articulation agreements with universities and other public postsecondary institutions for many of its programs. In a number of articulations with several universities in Alberta and British Columbia, the first two years of the university programs can be taken at the college and credited by the universities. The college also has articulation agreements with several institutions in Alaska for delivery of courses in programs leading to various bachelor's and master's degrees. The college has an articulation agreement with the University of Regina through which the college provides a four-year degree in education for Aboriginal students and a bachelor's degree in social work.

The quality of courses and programs offered through articulation is protected through the articulation agreements and program review process at each institution.

External and Internal Review

Yukon College serves a vast, sparsely populated region of the Canadian North. In its program development, the college relies heavily on community input to ensure that community service and graduate employment needs are met.

New programs and significantly changed programs are processed using procedures in which course and program content are developed with input from presidents' committees on programs. These committees are composed of sectoral representatives from outside the college and provide advice on the feasibility of new program proposals as well as content considerations. Coupled with input from campus committees at the college's 11 campuses, these committees ensure that college programming remains relevant to community needs. All new and significantly changed courses and programs are approved by the college's academic council to ensure that appropriate rigour and standards are met in areas such as instructor qualifications and learning outcomes.

The Department of Education also provides input into the review of some college programs.

Professional Accreditation

Many of Canada's regulated professions have associations that conduct accreditation reviews of college programs pertaining to their professions.  In these instances, accreditation teams from the professions review the reports provided by the colleges and may conduct on-site visits in accordance with the policies and procedures established by the professions.

Other Organizations Related to Quality Assurance in Colleges and Apprenticeship

Membership in the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is not mandatory for Yukon College, although it is a member. ACCC does not perform quality assurance functions with respect to its members, but it does promote quality programming and the use of high academic standards by conducting research and facilitating broad discussion on quality assurance issues.

The Association of Accrediting Agencies of Canada (AAAC) is a national organization composed of professional associations involved in promoting good practices by its members in accreditation of educational programs.

toc / tdm Apprenticeship

Legislation

Apprenticeship training in Yukon comprises a combination of workplace training and educational class instruction. The Apprentice Training Act establishes the authority responsible for apprenticeship matters in Yukon. The act requires that the government appoint an apprenticeship advisory board and director of apprentice training. The board's main function is to advise the minister of education on matters relating to training and the certification of people in designated trades and occupations. In advising the minister, the board draws upon the expertise of trade advisory committees appointed by the director of apprentice training.

The act also authorizes the government to make regulations relating to many aspects of apprenticeship including, but not limited to, the qualifications necessary to become an apprentice; the duration, nature, and scope of the training; appointment of examining boards; examinations and standards for examinations; issuing certificates; and inspection of the training of apprentices. The Regulation sets the Department of Education as responsible for the delivery of apprentice training and tradesperson qualification in Yukon.

External and Internal Review

The Department of Education, through the Advanced Education Branch, determines the delivery agents for apprentice in-school training and administers the in-school examinations of students in apprenticeship training. Quality is monitored through internal reviews of completion examination results and external reviews of curriculum by trade committees to ensure relevance to the needs of industry. Course and instructor evaluations conducted by students and outcomes surveys administered by the delivery agents are sometimes used to evaluate the in-school delivery portion. Yukon College delivers some of the in-school portion of apprenticeship training in accordance with the standards and curriculum set by Advanced Education. Yukon apprentices also attend in-school training in other jurisdictions under agreements between Advanced Education and those jurisdictions.

An Interprovincial Standards "Red Seal" Program promotes and facilitates the standardization of provincial and territorial apprenticeship training and certification, as well as the regular updating of national trades certification standards to reflect the ongoing technological changes taking place in all trades. The Canadian provinces and territories developed the Red Seal program in cooperation with the federal government (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada) to standardize trade certification requirements and provide greater employment mobility throughout Canada. These standards and qualifications are developed through the work of trades experts from across Canada representative of employers and employees in their occupation. A Certificate of Trades Qualification bearing the Red Seal provides recognition in most jurisdictions throughout Canada. For employers in other jurisdictions, the Red Seal is an assurance of quality certification to nationally recognized standards. Advanced Education is a member of the Interprovincial Standards Red Seal Program. Most Yukon apprentices obtain their "Red Seals" upon completion of their apprentice program if the Red Seal examination is available in their trade.

toc / tdm Private Training Institutions

Legislation

The Occupational Training Act establishes the government of Yukon as the authority that governs private occupational training. The act authorizes the government to enter into agreements with other governments or organizations to arrange for or provide training programs relating to occupational skills. For this purpose, boards or committees may be established to advise or assist in the administration of any policy, program, or service relating to occupational training.

As of the end of 2007, there were three private training institutions registered with the Yukon government under the Trade Schools Regulation Act.

toc / tdm Relevant Legislation

Territorial legislation can be directly accessed on the Internet.

toc / tdm Additional Sources of Information

Department of Education
Advanced Education Branch
P.O. Box 2703
Whitehorse, Yukon
Y1A 2C6 Canada
Tel: (867) 667-5131
Fax: (867) 667-8555
Web site:http://www.education.gov.yk.ca/

List of recognized postsecondary institutions in Yukon

Revision: 2010-10-04


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